Chrysochir aureus   (Richardson,  1846) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: The Marine Biological Association of India

Size: Maximum 31 cm; common to 25 cm

Color: Metallic blue above, shading to silvery below; pectoral fins yellow, other fins grey suffused with orange.

A rather slender species. Snout pointed, mouth large, nearly horizontal and subterminal, upper jaw extending backward to below hind margin of eye, over-shooting the lower jaw in front; rostral pores 3, marginal pores 5, the outer marginal pair in a marked notch; mental pores in 3 pairs, the first slit-like on either side of the symphysis; teeth differentiated into large and small in both jaws; large teeth in upper jaw forming the outer series, and including 1 or 2 canines twice as long as the other enlarged teeth at tip of jaw; large teeth in lower jaw forming the inner series but not including any canines; sagitta (large earstone) with a tadpole-shaped impression, the "tail" of which is only slightly curved, ending in a disc at the posterior end of otolith; gillrakers on lower limb of first arch 8 to 9, the first 2 to 5 reduced to short stumps. Dorsal fin with 10 spines, followed by a notch, second part of the fin with 1 spine and 25 to 28 soft rays; pectoral fins long; anal fins with 2 spines and 6 to 7 soft rays, the second spine rather weak, about half the length of the soft rays; caudal fin rhomboid with a pointed tip. Scales cycloid (smooth) on snout and below eye, elsewhere finely ctenoid (slightly rough to touch); lateral line scales reaching to tip of caudal fin. Swimbladder carrot-shaped, with 27 to 30 pairs of arborescent appendages, none entering head.

Synonym (s)
Chrysochir aureus (Richardson, 1846)
(Senior synonym)
Johnius birtwistlei Fowler, 1931
(Junior synonym)
Johnius ophiceps (Alcock, 1889)
(Junior synonym)
Nibea acuta (Tang, 1937)
(Junior synonym)
Otolithus aureus Richardson, 1846
(Senior synonym)
Pseudosciaena acuta Tang, 1937
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena incerta Vinciguerra, 1926
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena ophiceps Alcock, 1889
(Junior synonym)
Chrysochir aureus Trewavas and Yazdani, 1966
Johnius birtwistlei Fowler, 1933
Pseudusciaena birtwistlei (Fowler, 1931)

Common Name (s)
• Reeve's Croaker (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh as well as dried salted.)

Habitat:  Bentho Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Small crustaceans


• Andhra Pradesh, Off Kakinada INDIA (Record: 1990-1999)
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• West Bengal, Diamond Harbour INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Sivakami, S and Ramalingam, P (2003) The Sciaenid fishery resources off Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 74-87 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at -
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Sciaenid Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-17

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