Halistemma rubrum   (Vogt,  1852) (Hydrozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
Order:Siphonophorae
Family:Agalmatidae

Description
Size: Colony extremely long, growing up to two meters; highly contractile. Stem 1.5 mm in diameter.

Nectosome: 20-25 cm long about one tenth total length, bearing up to 30 pairs of nectophores.
Pneumatophore: Thin, spindle-shaped, 3 mm long, pigmented apex; with 8 septae.
Nectophore: Size varies according to age - young nectophores, 3.5 X 4.33 mm; mature nectophore 13.0 X 10.5 mm. Lateral extensions or wings not prominent, short, with a median lappet or lobe between lateral extensions. Median lappet, rectangular, prominent or small with pedicular canal in centre. Dorso-lateral ridges bifurcate in mid-region of nectophore, inner branches diverging towards each other near ostium. Lateral ridges very oblique (angle of 45°). Lateral oblique ridges may or may not join ventro-lateral ridges.
Dorsal and ventral radial canals short, simple, arising from pedicular canal at 2/3rd distance from ostium. Lateral radial canals dip down before ascending at lateral corners of nectosac (characteristic feature), taking a semicircular course at lateral side and join circular (ring) canal. Mouth plate may or may not be present.
Siphosome: Ten times as long as nectosome, growing upto 176 cm covered with numerous bracts. With dissolved cormidia. 70 or more gastrozooids, spaced 2.5 cm apart, 15-17 mm long, 2 mm wide, with elongate ovate basigaster, 4.5 mm long.
Tentacle: With 4-6 unicornuate vermilion tentilla. Cnidoband loosely coiled with 8-10 turns, 5 mm long, tentilla 10 mm long when extended. With inconspicuous involucrum at junction of pedicel and cnidoband. Cnidoband with sabre-shaped numerous nematocysts (70 µ long, 7 µ wide) and a row of bean shaped ones at proximal sides (70 µ long, 20 µ wide). Single terminal filament 2 cm long, terminating in cone shaped coil of ten turns.
Each cormidium with one gastrozooid, 2 or 3 small proximal palpons, one longer distal palpon; male and female gonodendra, at bases of palpons.
Palpon: Active, vermiform, 11 mm long, 2 mm wide, with simple palpacles, bearing small nematocysts.
Female gonodendron: At base of distal palpon, about one third distance from last gastrozooid with broad muscular stalk, and groups of medusoid gonophores (codonid type), 5 mm in diameter, when mature. Single large ova with yolk granules. Keeps contracting and expanding (in living condition).
Male gonodendron: Occur distal to female gonodendron, at bases of three large palpons situated between two gastrozooids. With reduced stalk, bearing 8-10 mature male gonophores, each budded at an angle of 120° in transverse plane from bases of its predecessor. 6 mm long; keeps pulsating until set free.
Bracts: Numerous, covering entire siphosome, leaf-like, thin with three small distal teeth. Attached to stem by broad muscular lamella extending to one third proximal length of bract. Bracteal canal central, with a pad of nematocyst at distal end.


Synonym (s)
Agalma rubra Vogt, 1852
(Basionym)
Stephanomia rubra (Vogt, 1852)
Agalma rubra Vogt, 1852
Stephanomia rubra Bigelow, 1911
Halistemma rubrum Daniel, 1974

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Coastal

Biogeography


• Bay of Bengal (Record: 1962-1965)
• Arabian Sea (Record: 1962-1965)
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 1962-1965)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA (Record: 2008)
• Westcoast (Lat: 11.16) (Long: 75.45) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 10.58) (Long: 75.41) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 14.78) (Long: 74.01) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 15.4) (Long: 73.7) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 15.31) (Long: 73.35) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 15.25) (Long: 73.16) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 15.2) (Long: 72.68) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 15.86) (Long: 72.78) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 15.95) (Long: 73.08) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 14.63) (Long: 73.35) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 14.68) (Long: 73.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 73.16) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 72.73) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 71.96) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 17.4) (Long: 71.3) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 17.36) (Long: 72.33) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 17.38) (Long: 71.81) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.05) (Long: 72.61) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.05) (Long: 72.1) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.05) (Long: 71.6) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.7) (Long: 70.36) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.7) (Long: 70.61) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.7) (Long: 71.13) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.7) (Long: 71.65) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.7) (Long: 72.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 20) (Long: 72) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 20) (Long: 71.25) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 20) (Long: 69.25) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 20.86) (Long: 70.35) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 20.33) (Long: 71) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 20.33) (Long: 72) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 20.31) (Long: 72.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.5) (Long: 72.25) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.5) (Long: 70.75) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 18.5) (Long: 70.43) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 17) (Long: 71.5) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 9.68) (Long: 75.16) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 9.75) (Long: 75.43) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 15.61) (Long: 71.45) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Westcoast (Lat: 9.5) (Long: 73.83) INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Red Sea (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• Arabian Sea INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1963)
• West Coast INDIA
• Lakshadweep Sea INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Daniel, R (1985) Fauna of India and the adjacent countries (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa: Siphonophora) ZSI 440 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Rengarajan, K (1973) Siphonophores obtained during the cruises of R. V. Varuna from the west coast of India and the Laccadive Sea Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 15(1) 125-129 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1580/1/Rao_125-259.pdf
  • Rengarajan, K (1975) Distribution of siphonophores along the west coast of India and the Laccadive sea Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 17(1) 56-72 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Boltovskoy, D (Ed.) Zooplankton of the South Atlantic Ocean Marine Species Identification Portal Available at - http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=Zsao&menuentry=inleiding

Page last updated on:2011-09-08

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