Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos   (Bleeker,  1856) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Zubi

Size: Max length 255 cm TL (male/unsexed); 172 cm TL (female)

Max. weight reported: 33.7 kg

Color: Dark grey or bronze-grey above, white below; caudal fin with a conspicuous wide black posterior margin; undersides of pectoral and pelvic fins with black tips and posterior margins, but fins otherwise not conspicuously black or white-tipped except for white-tipped first dorsal in some individuals.

Dermal ridge absent. Snout rounded. Internarial distance 1.1 times the preoral length. Big eyes. First dorsal origin in front of pectoral free rear tip. Nasal flaps moderate and not enlarged. Labial furrows very short, almost inconspicuous. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Viviparous, placental. 1-6 pups in a litter. Gestation period about 12 months. Size at birth 50 to 60 cm or 75 cm. Distinct pairing with embrace.

Max. age reported: 25 years

Synonym (s)
Carcharhinus melanopterus (non Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharhinus menisorrah (Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Ambiguous synonym)
Carcharhinus spallanzani (non Peron & Lesueur, 1822)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharhinus wheeleri Garrick, 1982
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias amblyrhynchos Bleeker, 1856
(Senior synonym)
Carcharias nesiotes Snyder, 1904
(Junior synonym)
Eulamia melanoptera (non Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
(Misapplied name)
Galeolamna coongoola Whitley, 1964
(Junior synonym)
Galeolamna fowleri Whitley, 1944
(Junior synonym)
Galeolamna tufiensis Whitley, 1949
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Grey Reef Shark (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, gamefish. Utilized for human consumption, fishmeal, and other shark products.
Traumatogenic; Tends to be aggressive under baited conditions and readily enters into a frenzy feeding pattern, at which time it may become quite dangerous. Repeatedly incriminated in human attacks.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Its restricted habitat choice, site fidelity, inshore distribution, small litter size, relatively late age at maturity and increasing unmanaged fishing pressure suggests that this species may be under threat.)

Habitat:  Pelagic, Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Reef fishes, squids, octopi, crabs, lobsters and shrimps
Predator:  Carcharhinus albimarginatus, Orcinus orca
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened


• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 2000-2002)
• SRI LANKA (Record: 10/1991-12/1993)
• Kerala, Kochi Fisheries Harbour INDIA (Record: 01/2008-06/2009)

Literature Source(s)
  • Joshi, KK; Balachandran, K and Raje, SG (2008) Changes in the shark fishery at Cochin Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 103-105 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Starfish Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Moron, J; Bertrand, B and Last, P (1998) A check-list of sharks and rays of western Sri Lanka Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 40(1&2) 142-157 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Akhilesh, KV; Ganga, U; Pillai, NGK; Vivekanandan, E; Bineesh, KK; Shanis, CPR and Hashim, M (2011) Deep-sea fishing for chondrichthyan resources and sustainability concerns-a case study from southwest coast of India Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences NISCAIR 40(3) 347-355 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-02-17

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