Holocentrum rubrum   (Forskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 23 cm.

Color: Of young specimens in alcohol dark reddish brown above, silvery below, each row of scales with a longitudinal broad silvery band. Operculum darkbrown, its hind border silvery. Upper part of membrane between dorsal spines blackish, as well as that between third and fourth anal spine and first soft ray. A longitudinal darkish streak on first ventral rays and on upper and lower lobe of caudal. In older specimens these different markings are less pronounced.

Oblong, head blunt, its upper profile curved and rather abruptly descending from occiput to snout. Height 2.6-2.9, 3.1-3.5 in length with caudal. Head 2.8-3, 3.4-3.8 in length with caudal. Eye larger, 2.3-2.8, twice longer than snout. Narrowest part of interorbital space more than half eye. Jaws nearly equal in front, the upper one scarcely projecting. Maxillary reaching not quite as far as to below middle of eye. The bony ridges, which border the groove for the praemaxillary peduncle, end anteriorly in a blunt spine. No spines at nasal opening. Lower border of praeorbital with a series of irregular blunt spines, praeorbital ridge with smaller spines directed outwards, the first of which is somewhat larger, Hindborder of narrow postorbital denticulated. Opercular bones strongly denticulated. Two flat spines in upper part of operculum, the upper one longer and stronger than the lower one. Praeopercular spine less than eye or equal to it. Six or seven transverse rows of scales on praeoperculum, about six between occiput and dorsal. Third and fourth dorsal spine longer than others, the last one the shortest. Membrane between the dorsal spine rather deeply incised. Third anal spine as long as head without snout or longer. Ventrals longer than pectorals, shorter or longer than head without snout. Ventral spine less than or equal to snout and eye. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.1-1.4 in its length.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Sciaena rubra Forskal, 1775
Perca rubra Bloch, 1801
Holocentrum alborubrum Lacepede, 1802
Holocentrus ruber Ruppell, 1831
Holocentrum orientale Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829
Holocentrum laticeps Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831
Holocentrum alborubrum Richardson, 1845
Holocentrum orientale Bleeker, 1849
Holocentrum rubrum Gunther, 1859
Holocentrum rubrum Playfair, 1866
Holocentrum rubrum Kner, 1868
Holocentrum rubrum Klunzinger, 1870
Holocentrum rubrum Bleeker, 1873
Holocentrum rubrum Gunther, 1875
Holocentrum rubrum Day, 1888
Holocentrum rubrum Macleay, 1881
Holocentrum rubrum Klunzinger, 1884
Holocentrum rubrum Sauvage, 1891
Holocentrum rubrum Steindachner, 1900
Holocentrus alboruber Jordan and Fowler, 1902
Holocenthrus albo-ruber Fowler, 1904
Holocenthrus aureoruber Fowler, 1904
Holocentrus praslin Jordan and Seale, 1906
Holocentrus ruber Jordan and Seale, 1907
Holocentrus praslin Jordan and Starks, 1907
Holocentrus ruber Jordan and Richardson, 1908
Holocentrus ruber Snyder, 1912
Holocentrus ruber Jordan and Starks, 1917
Holocentrus ruber Fowler and Bean, 1922
Holocentrum rubrum Barnard, 1925

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Ornamental fish)



• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Off South West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1968) (Depth: 10-75 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7786/1/678-Mur.pdf
  • Silas, EG (1969) Part-1 Exploratory otter trawling surveys by R.V. Varuna and other vessels operating in association with her from the continental shelf edge and the upper continental slope off the south-west coast of India Exploratory fishing by R.V. Varuna Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 12 7-51 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/657/2/Bulletin_No_12_1.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-05-20

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