Holocentrum spiniferum   (Forsskal)  1775 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 26-40 cm.

Color: In specimen yellowish.

Oblong, dorsal profile running in a straight line from dorsal to snout, with a slight gibbosity at nape. Height 2.6, 3.1 in length with caudal. Head about 3, 3.5 in length with caudal. Eye 4 in head, slightly less than snout and 1.7 in postorbital part of head. Interorbital space narrow, almost twice in eye. Maxillary reaching to below anterior half of eye. Lower jaw somewhat prominent. Nasalia ending each in a bifurcate spine in front. No spines at nasal opening. Praeorbital with two larger obtuse spines and some much smaller slender ones between them. Postorbital narrow, with small denticulations, those of the hindborder of the praeoperculum are larger. Praeopercular spine large and stout, reaching to branchial opening. Six transverse rows of scales on praeoperculum. Operculum with three flat spines above, followed by numerous smaller spines, arranged in a parallel row. Origin of dorsal separated by about 9 scales from occiput. Second and third dorsal spine subequal, not quite as long as eye and snout. The first and third spine are more slender than the second and fourth. Posteriorly the spines decrease in size, the last one being the shortest and only one third of eye. Membrane between the spines very slightly notched. Second dorsal equal in height to the anal. First anal spine minute, third very stout, equal to eye and snout, with a deep furrow posteriorly to receive the fourth spine, which is much weaker than the preceding. Ventrals only slightly shorter than pectorals, which are somewhat shorter than head without snout. Ventral spine shorter than postorbital part of head. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.3 in its length. Caudal forked, the lobes pointed.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Sciaena spinifera Forskal 1775
Holocentrum leo Cuvier and Valenciennes 1829
Holocentrum leo Bleeker 1854
Holocentrum spiniferum Gunther 1859
Holocentrum spiniferum Kner 1867
Holocentrum andamense Day 1870
Holocentrum spiniferum Klunzinger 1870
Holocentrum spiniferum Bleeker 1873
Holocentrum spiniferum Gunther 1875
Holocentrum andamense Day 1888
Holocentrum leo Sauvage 1891
Holocentrum spiniferum Sauvage
Holocentrus spinifer Fowler 1899
Holocentrus leo Fowler 1904
Holocentrus spinifer Jordan and Evermann 1905
Holocentrus spinifer Jordan and Seale 1906

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA (Record: 1929)

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa

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