Holocentrum sammara   (Forsskal)  1775 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 22 cm.

Rather elongate, dorsal profile sloping down in a gently curved line from dorsal to snout, more abruptly before the eyes, and more so in young specimens than in older ones, but there is a good deal of variation, the snout being blunter in some specimens laeve than in other. Height 3-3.6, 3.7-4.2 in length with caudal. Head 2.6-2.9, 3.1-3.4 in length with caudal. Eye 2.8-3, slightly less than snout, in young specimens and sometimes in older ones the snout is shorter. Interorbital space 0.6-0.8 of eye. Maxillary reaching to below anterior half of eye or not quite so far. Nasalia rounded or obtusely pointed in front but without spine. Lower jaw prominent. No spines at nasal opening. Praeorbital with a row of subequal crowded spines and a larger blunt one in front, which disappears with age. Postorbital narrow, serrated along its hindborder. All the parts of the opercular apparatus are bordered with spines, less so in large specimens. Praeoperculum spine short and rather broad, not reaching to branchial opening. Seven transverse rows of scales on praeoperculum. Two rather long flat spines on upper part of operculum. Origin of dorsal separated by 6 to 7 scales from dorsal. Second and third dorsal spines longest, almost equal to fourth one and shorter than snout and eye together. Posteriorly the spines decrease in size, the penultimate one being the shortest, the last dorsal spine is slightly longer than the preceding one and about equal to half diameter of eye, membrane between the spines incised. First anal spine minute, second one longer, third one the longest and not quite equal to head without snout, with a deep furrow behind to fit the fourth, which is shorter than eye and snout. Ventrals and pectorals subequal, as long as eye and snout. Ventral spine somewhat longer than postorbital part of head. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.6-1.8 in its length. Caudal forked, the lobes rounded.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Sciaena sammara Forskal 1775
Labrus angulosus Lacepede 1802
Holocentrus samara Ruppell 1831
Holocentrum sammara Cuvier and Valenciennes 1929
Holocentrum sammara Bleeker 1848
Holocentrum sammara Gunther 1859
Holocentrum tahiticum Kner 1864
Holocentrum sammara Klunzinger 1870
Holocentrum sammara Bleeker 1873
Holocentrum sammara Gunther 1875
Holocentrum sammara Day 1888
Holocentrum sammara Klunzinger 1884
Holocentrum sammara Sauvage 1891
Holocentrus fuscostriatus Seale 1901
Holocentrus microstomus Fowler 1901
Holocenthrus thorntonensis Fowler 1904
Flammeo sammara Jenkins 1904
Flammeo sammara Jordan and Evermann 1905
Holocentrus sammara Jordan and Seale 1906
Holocentrum sammara Barnard 1925
Holocentrum laeve Gunther 1859
Holocentrum goldiei Macleay 1882
Flammeo achromopterus Fowler 1904
Holocentrum laeve Steindachner 1906
Holocentrus laevis Jordan and Seale 1906

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• INDIA (Record: 1929)

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2009-07-17

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