Torpedo panthera   Olfers  1831 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 12-31 cm disc width

Color: Brown- or light brown-colored disc, with many brighter spots all over the body.

It is a cartilaginous fish with a quite narrow disc. The mouth is situated on the underside of the flabby body and small, bulging eyes are situated on top of the head, surrounded by small spiracles. Spiracles are tiny holes that allow the ray to breathe when resting on the ocean bottom, as in this position the mouth is covered. The stout tail is substantially shorter than the length of the body disc and bears a well developed fin at its tip. It has two dorsal fins, small and rounded, close to their pelivc fins. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Vertebrae: 98-102.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures.

Synonym (s)
Torpedo panthera Olfers 1831
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Panther Electric Ray (English)
• Leopard Torpedo (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Severe fishing pressure, particularly from shrimp trawls. Its benthic nature makes this species, as with other sluggish torpedo rays, susceptible to capture in trawl gear.)

Habitat:  Benthic, Sandy, Muddy
IUCN Status:  Data Deficient


• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 00/10/1999-00/11/2000)

Literature Source(s)
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Guardini, M and Boyer, M World database of marine species Available at -
  • Arkive: Images of life on earth Available at -

Page last updated on:2009-07-14

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