Torpedo fuscomaculata   Peters  1855 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Wildscreen

Size: 11-22 cm disc width

Color: Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below.

Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures.

Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge.

Synonym (s)
Narcacion fuscomaculatus (Peters) 1855
(Senior synonym)
Narcacion marmoratus (non Risso) 1810
(Misapplied name)
Narcacion polleni Bleeker 1866
(Junior synonym)
Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855
(Senior synonym)
Torpedo marmorata (non Risso) 1810
(Misapplied name)
Torpedo panthera (non Olfers) 1831
(Misapplied name)
Torpedo polleni (Bleeker) 1866
(Junior synonym)
Torpedo smithii Gunther 1870
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Caught as bycatch by inshore trawlers and inshore anglers. Also found in estuarine and intertidal zone, so local populations might decrease due to coastal developments.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes and cuttlefish
IUCN Status:  Data Deficient


• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 00/10/1999-00/11/2000)

Literature Source(s)
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Arkive: Images of life on earth Available at -

Page last updated on:2009-07-14

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