Gymnura japonica   (Temminck & Schlegel)  1850 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: The Fish Database of Taiwan

Size: 100 cm; 31-53 cm disc width

Color: Dorsal surface of disc slate color or brownish gray; tail annulate with 8 dark rings, about as broad as interspaces; ventral surface of disc whitish.

Disc broad, its length 2.0 to 2.2 times in width. Snout broadly obtuse, with a slight projection in front. Spiracles open upwards, larger than and close behind eyes; no spiracular tentacles. Tail slender, 1.3-1.4 times in length of disc; armed with a small weak serrated spine at its first third, with no upper and lower cutaneous folds. No dorsal, anal and caudal fins. Mouth moderate, slightly arched, with no buccal processes on floor of mouth. Teeth minute, in each jaw, unicuspidate. Skin smooth. Spines covered with skin with poisonous glands.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures. Distinct pairing with embrace.

Synonym (s)
Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)
(Senior synonym)
Pteroplatea japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1850
(Senior synonym)
Pteroplatea japonica Schlegel, 1850
Pteroplatea micrura (nec Schneider) Day, 1878
Gymnura (Gymnura) micrura Misra, 1969
Gymnura (Gymnura) japonica Talwar and Das, 1974
Gymmura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)

Common Name (s)
• Japnese Butterfly Ray (English)
• Mazhmi Thirukkai (Tamil)
• Randgi (Marathi)
• Shevta (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size.

Habitat:  Demersal, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans, worms, fishes, other benthic invertebrates


• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 00/10/1999-00/11/2000)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA (Record: 2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 2003)
• Orissa INDIA (Record: 1984)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-02

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