Plakina monolopha   Schulze,  1880 (Sponge)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Demospongiae

Image copyrights: National Museums Northern Ireland

Size: Maximum thickness 1 mm.

Color: pale chocolate (when dry)

Surface papillate. The simplest canal system of the Demospongiae is found in this species. The upper wall (spongophare) of the primitive rhagon has become folded to form a number of lobes. The flagellated chambers are euryplous and they open into the original continuous gastral cavity, which has been folded, thus forming an excurrent canal. The space in between the adjacent folds of the spongophare thus becomes the incurrent canals and the opening of the gastral cavity, the oscule. No trace of cortex formation is present. This species is hermaphrodite. Microtriods and microcalthrops are more or less of the same size. Monolophous calthrops. One ray with 2-4 branches the rest unbranched. Abundantly met with in the outer parts.

Synonym (s)
Placina monolopha (Schulze, 1880)
Plakina monolopha var. eurasia Lendenfeld, 1907
(Junior synonym)
Placina monolopha Sollas, 1888

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky


• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram Island INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Thomas, PA (1970) Studies on Indian sponges VII. Two new records and a new species of the genus Plakina Schulze (Carnosida: Halinidae) from the Indian region Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 12(1-2) 51-56 Available at -
  • Encyclopedia of Life Available at -
  • Thomas, PA (1970) On some deep sea sponges from the Gulf of Mannar, with descriptions of three new species Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 12(1-2) 202-209 Available at -
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-03-14

Back to Search