Hippocampus trimaculatus   Leach,  1814 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Ernest W.T. Cooper, TRAFFIC North America

Maximum recorded adult height: 17 cm.

Color: Brown to pale yellowish. Large dark spots on dorso-lateral surface of the 1st, 4th and 7th trunk rings.

Trunk rings: 11
Tail rings: 40–41 (38–43)
Rings supporting dorsal fin: 2 trunk rings and 1 tail ring
Dorsal fin rays: 20 (18–22)
Pectoral fin rays: 17–18 (16–19)
Spines: Low and small, to slightly raised

Narrow head with low spines, and small sharp hook-like eye and cheek spines. Coronet low and in line with arch of neck.

Breeding season year round, peaking March to May and in October; egg diameter averages 1 mm; gestation duration averages 16 days; length at birth averages 6 mm; maximum reported brood size 1783.

This species is associated with seagrass beds.

Similar species: H. fisheri and H. zebra

Synonym (s)
Hippocampus mannulus Cantor, 1850
Hippocampus kampylotrachelos Bleeker, 1854
Hippocampus manadensis Bleeker, 1856
Hippocampus planifrons Peters, 1877
Hippocampus dahli Ogilby, 1908
Hippocampus takakurae Tanaka, 1916

Common Name (s)
• Three-spot seahorse (English)
• Low-crowned Seahorse (English)
• Flat-faced Seahorse (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Dried for traditional medicine and curios)

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Demersal, Sandy, Muddy
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• East Coast, Coromandel INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi, Sakthikulangara INDIA
• Kerala, Kozhikode INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Gujarat, Adatra Reef INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Murugan, A; Dhanya, S; Rajagopal, S and Balasubramanian, T (2008) Seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast Current Science 95 (2) 253-260 Available at - http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul252008/253.pdf
  • Lourie, SA; Foster, SJ; Cooper, EWT and Vincent, ACJ (2004) A guide to the identification of Seahorses Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America. Washington D.C.: University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund. 1-114 Available at - http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gopalakrishnan, P (1970) Some observations on the shore ecology of the Okha Coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin, India 120(1&2) 15-34 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Muraenidae-Eel Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-21

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