Tringa ochropus   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyright: pbase

Description
Size: Length: 23-24 cm.

Color: Above dark greenish brown with buff speckling; below white; white superciliary line; olive-brown mottling on sides of neck and breast; clear demarcation between white rump and dark back; tail white with a few heavy black bars near tip; breeding bird has bolder streaking on head, neck and breast, blackish eyeline and white eyering and subloral streak. Immature like adult but with sparse buff spots above.

Bare parts: Iris brown; bill blackish brown to dark horn with olive base; feet and legs olive green.

This species is a dumpy wader with a dark green back, greyish head and breast and otherwise white underparts. The back is spotted white to varying extents, being maximal in the breeding adult, and less in winter and young birds. The legs and short bill are both dark green.

The bill is long and slender and front toes are partly joined with a web.

It is obvious in flight, with wings dark above and below, and a brilliant white rump. The latter feature distinguishes it from the slightly smaller but otherwise very similar Solitary Sandpiper of North America to which it is closely related.In flight it has a characteristic three-note whistle.

Green Sandpiper lays 2-4 eggs in an old tree nest of another species, such as a Fieldfare, squirrels, thrushes, pigeon, crows, jays and shrikes . The eggs take about three weeks to hatch.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Green Sandpiper (English)
• Kata kokku (Malayalam)
• Nalla ulanka (Telugu)
• Aathuchuzhi ullan (Tamil)
• Hirvi tuutari (Marathi)
• Leeli tutvari, Leelipag thuthvari, Shwetapunch thuthvari (Gujrati)
• Hara retal chaha (Punjabi)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Small invertebrates
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Sundarban INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/n058/p00024-p00027.pdf
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Animal Photo Album Available at - http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Whistler, H (1949) Popular handbook of Indian Birds Gurney and Jackson 542pp Available at - http://archive.org/stream/popularhandbooko033226mbp#page/n5/mode/2up
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Avibase- the world database Available at - http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent ENVIS Newsletter: Avian Ecology and Inland Wetland 55pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(2).pdf
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/v099/p00031-p00034.pdf
  • Zöckler C, Balachandran S, Bunting GC, Fanck M, Kashiwagi M, Lappo EG, Maheswaran G, Sharma A, Syroechkovski EE and Webb K (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders Wader Study Group Bull 108 42–46pp Available at - http://m-h-s.org/stiftung/upload/pdf-downloadbar/Ornith_Expedition_Indien.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Pandya PJ and Vachhrajani KD (2010) Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) 994-1000pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/June/o231626vi10994-1000.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Pande S, Sant N, Ranade S, Pednekar S, Mestry P, Deshpande P, Kharat S and Deshmukh V (2007) Avifaunal survey of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, January 2007 Indian Birds 3 (5) 162–180pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Avifaunal%20survey%20of%20Andaman%20and%20Nicobar%20Islands,%20January%202007.pdf
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2007/October/2839-2847.pdf
  • Pande S, Sant NR, Ranade SD, PednekarSN, Mestry PG, Kharat S S and Deshmukh V (2007) An ornithological expedition to the Lakshadweep archipelago: Assessment of threats to pelagic and other birds and recommendations Indian Birds 3(1) 2-12pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/An%20ornithological%20expedition.pdf
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/

Page last updated on:2013-02-05

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