Muraena (Gymnothorax) pseudothyrsoidea   Bleeker,  1852 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 56 cm.

Color: Brownish with more or less conspicuous very fine white or yellow lines, forming a network, sometimes almost uniform dark brown. It has light
brownish spots on the head and body with dull yellowish lines or reticulations in between.

Height 14-20, head 7 to nearly 8, 2.6-2.9 in trunk. Tail shorter than head and trunk. Eye 8-12, twice (specimens of 56.3 cm.) or less in snout. Cleft of mouth 2.1-2.3 in length of head. Gillopenings narrower than eye. Mouth not shutting completely in large specimens. Dorsal and anal rather well developed, the former beginning before gillopenings. Maxillaries with one series of 12-13 compressed teeth and in young specimens anteriorly with an inner row of 1-3 larger ones. Intermaxillary plate with a peripheral series of about 10-12 teeth and a mesial series of 3 canines. Vomer with a single row of 3-9 small teeth. Mandibles with a single row of about 19 teeth. In younger specimens the teeth near the symphysis are irregularly biserial.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Muraena pseudothyrsoidea Bleeker 1852
Gymnothorax makassariensis Bleeker 1863
Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus Bleeker 1864
Muraena macassariensis Gunther 1870
Muraena pseudothyrsoidea Gunther
Muraena pseudothyrsoidea Day 1888
Gymnothorax philippinus Jordan and Seale 1907
Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus Jordan and Richardson 1909

Common Name (s)
• hessal (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(used as bait)



• INDIA (Record: 1916)
• Maharashtra, Sasoon Dock INDIA
• Maharashtra, Versova INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1916) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago A.J. Reprints agency, Karol Bagh, New Delhi 3 455 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bal, DV and Mohamed, KH (1957) A systematic account of the eels of Bombay Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society Bombay Natural History Society 54 (3) 1-9 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-03-23

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