Rachycentron canadus [Status Unaccepted]   (Linnaeus,  1766) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: 120-200 cm.

Max. published weight: 68.0 kg.

Color: Deep brown, sharply defined by a more or less silvery band from the yellowish color of abdomen, in young there is a second, more dorsal, light band, with a dark band between them, they have also the otherwise dark-brown caudal with white outer edges.

Cigar shaped body with broad and depressed head. Height, according to age 7.50-5.7, nearly cylindrical, greatest height at origin of second dorsal, thence to snout and to caudal declivous in a nearly straight line. Head 4-4.1, much depressed and flat. Eye 6 to more than 8, twice to more than 3.5 in broad, low snout. Mouth is large with a projected jaw. Palatine teeth are present in bands in jaws. Maxillary about 2.5 in head, terminating below front border of eye. Dorsal spine short but strong. Anterior dorsal and anal rays after youth elevated into a somewhat pointed lobe, caudal in adult lunate, the lobes pointed, the upper longer, in young the central caudal rays are much prolonged, lateron the fin becoming obtuse, than slightly emarginate, till its final form is reached. Also the low placed pectorals becoming more falcate with growth, being finally somewhat shorter than head and about two and a half times longer than ventrals. First dorsal fin with short but strong isolated spines, not connected by a membrane. Caudal fin lunate in adults, upper lobe longer than lower. Dorsal spines (total): 7 - 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 31; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 24

Dioecious, external fertilization, batch spawner.

Max. reported age: 15 years.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Apolectus niger (Bloch, 1793)
(Junior synonym)
Centronotus gardenii Lacepede, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Centronotus spinosus Mitchill, 1815
(Junior synonym)
Elacate atlantica Cuvier, 1832
(Junior synonym)
Elacate bivittata Cuvier, 1832
(Junior synonym)
Elacate canada (Linnaeus, 1766)
(Senior synonym)
Elacate falcipinnis Gosse, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Elacate malabarica Cuvier, 1832
(Junior synonym)
Elacate motta Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Elacate nigra (Bloch, 1793)
(Junior synonym)
Elacate pondiceriana Cuvier, 1832
(Junior synonym)
Gasterosteus canadus Linnaeus, 1766
(Senior synonym)
Meladerma nigerrima Swainson, 1839
(Junior synonym)
Naucrates niger (Bloch, 1793)
(Junior synonym)
Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766)
(Senior synonym)
Rachycentron typus Kaup, 1826
(Junior synonym)
Scomber niger Bloch, 1793
(Junior synonym)
Thynnus canadensis Gronow, 1854
(Junior synonym)
Elacate pondiceriana Ruppell, 1835
Elacate bivittata Bleeker, 1845
Elacate bivittata Cantor, 1850
Elacate motta Bleeker, 1852
Elacate nigra Gunther, 1860
Elacate nigra Bleeker, 1862
Elacate malabarica Guichenot, 1866
Elacate nigra Playfair and Gunther, 1866
Elacate nigra Klunzinger, 1871
Elacate nigra de Castelnau, 1879
Elacate nigra Macleary, 1881
Elacate nigra Day, 1888
Elacate canada Steindachner, 1896
Rachycentron canadus Jordan and Evermann, 1896
Rachycentron pondicerianus Fowler, 1904
Rachycentron canadus Evermann and Seale, 1906
Rachycentron pondicerrianum Jordan and Seale, 1907
Rachycentron canadum Jordan and Richardson, 1908
Rachycentron pondicerianum McCulloch, 1915
Rachycentron pondicerianum McCulloch, 1926
Rachycentrum canadus Barnard, 1927

Common Name (s)
• Black King Fish (English)
• Butterfish (English)
• Modasa
• Prodigal son (English)
• Modasa (Gujarati)
• Neimeen (Malayalam)
• Madusa (Marathi)
• Muddus (Marathi)
• Sakla (Marathi)
• Sakala (Marathi)
• Kadal-viral (Tamil)
• Cuddul-verarl (Tamil)
• Cuddal-verarl (Tamil)
• Peddah-mottah (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Good food fish, marketed fresh, smoked and frozen, aquaculture, gamefish, caught for sport.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Bony fishes, crabs, stomatopods, cnidarians
Predator:  Bony fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Family: Coryphaenidae)


• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedalai INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/808/1/Bulletin_No_33.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Coastal Fishery Resources in Countries Bordering Indian Ocean Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-17

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