Hyalonema (Cyliconema) apertum apertum   Schulze,  1886 (Sponge)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Hexactinellida

Image copyrights: The Marine Biological Association of India

Size: Length of the body 95 mm; length of basalia 410 mm

The body is more or less inverted cone with small osculum and narrow atrial cavity. The body is followed by basalia which is in the form of long twisted spicules; the twisting is more apparent proximally. Towards the proximal part of basalia epizoic zooanthids are found in large numbers. The hexactinellid sponges have siliceous spicules of hexactinic, triaxonic symmetry or shapes derived from such forms by reduction of primary rays or terminal branches added to the ends of the primary rays. They lack calcareous minerals and sclerified organic spongin as skeletal components. H. (Cyliconema) apertum apertum encompassed diverse type of spicules:
Small diactines – These were all microscleres. Some of the small choanosomal diactines were found to have rounded terminations, while others were conically pointed. The surface was smooth in some, while others had rough surfaces. Some diactines were even and some of them had swellings in the middle.
Large diactines – Various types of large choanosomal diactines were observed and these were megascleres. Some were even while some had widening in the middle and few others had tubercles in the middle. The tips of the diactines also showed variations. In some, the tips were more bulky with granulations, while in some, the tips were smooth. Some of the large choanosomal diactines had tips bearing prominent serrations.
Pentactines – The pentactines varied in their sizes and both mega and microscleres of this type were present. The pinular ray of pentactines has short spines. Some pinular rays were shorter in length, while some were long and whip-like. The tangential rays were also covered with short spines and their terminations were conically pointed. The micropentactines were rare and spiny.
Stauractines – The stauractines varied in size and both mega and microscleres of this type were present. They were conically pointed and the terminations were smooth in some and rough in others.
Hexactines – The microhexactines which were microscleres had spiny and distally curved rays. The larger hexactines which were megascleres were also found to have spiny rays.
Amphidiscs – The amphidiscs were represented by three types such as macramphidiscs, mesamphidiscs and micramphidiscs. The macramphidiscs had tuberculated shafts and the length of the shafts varied considerably. Some macramphidiscs had a whorl of tubercles in the middle, while in others, tubercles were found throughout the length of the shaft. The mesamphidiscs possessed tuberculated shafts. The micramphidiscs also had tuberculated shafts.

Synonym (s)
Hyalonema (Stylocalyx) apertus Schulze, 1886
Hyalonema (Cyliconema) apertum apertum Schulze, 1886
Hyalonema (Stylocalyx) apertum Schulze, 1887
Hyalonema apertum Schulze, 1893
Hyalonema affine Schulze, 1899
Hyalonema affine japonicum Schulze, 1899
Hyalonema (Cyliconema) apertum solidum Okada, 1932
Hyalonema apertum apertum Schulze, 1886

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans, Off Diglipur (Lat: 13.1) (Long: 93.18) INDIA (Record: 00/01/2007-00/02/2007) (Depth: 402 mts)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans, Off Mayabunder (Lat: 12.97) (Long: 93.11) INDIA (Record: 00/01/2007-00/02/2007) (Depth: 329 mts)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans, Off Mayabunder (Lat: 12.75) (Long: 93.15) INDIA (Record: 00/01/2007-00/02/2007) (Depth: 369 mts)
• West coast of Andaman (Lat: 13.1) (Long: 93.18) INDIA (Depth: 402 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Vinod, K; George, RM; Sanil, NK; Jayaprakash, AA; Manjebrayakath, H and Thankappan, D (2007) An account of hexactinellid sponge, Hyalonema (Cyliconema) apertum apertum collected from Andaman waters Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 49(2) 219-225 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Dr. Shivaji, A; Dr. Sanjeevan, VN; Saravanane, N; Dr. Shunmugaraj, T and Dr. Gupta, GVM (2010) Achievements of FORV Sagar Sampada 1997-2010 Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology, Ministry of earth Sciences, Kochi, India 10-21 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-05-26

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