Didemnum candidum   Savigny,  1813 (Sea Squirt)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Ascidiacea

Image copyrights: Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum

Max. size: 0.5 cm COLD (male); colonies extend 75-100 mm to 5 mm thick.

Color: White or grey, sandy

Fouling species. It is a colonial ascidian that forms patches or mounds. These patches can be quite extensive, overgrowing worm tubes, sponges, ascidians, and algae in the fouling community.

This species is hermaphrodite, with a simple reproductive system. Fertilization is external, and after a time in the plankton the free-swimming tadpole larvae will settle and metamorphose.

They are suspension feeders that use a mucous net to filter plankton from the water. Ciliary action moves water into the oral siphon and to the pharynx which resembles a basket. As water is pumped through slits in the pharyngeal basket, out the atrial siphon, it passes through a layer of mucous coating the inside. When the mucous sheet is clogged with food, special structures pass it to a short esophagus and into the stomach.

Synonym (s)
Didemnum annectens (Herdman, 1886)
(New combination)
Didemnum fusiferum Van Name, 1921
(Original combination)
Didemnum novaeseelandiae Hartmeyer, 1909
(Original combination)
Didemnum yolky Monniot & Monniot, 1997
(Original combination)
Leptoclinides africanus Michaelsen, 1914
(Original combination)
Leptoclinum africanus (Michaelsen, 1914)
(New combination)
Leptoclinum annectens Herdman, 1886
(Original combination)
Leptoclinum candidum (Savigny, 1816)
(New combination)
Leptoclinum cretaceum Sluiter, 1898
(Original combination)
Leptoclinum niveum Nott, 1892
(Original combination)
Didemnum candidum Savigny, 1816
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• White Crust (English)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Demersal, Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Plankton


• Kerala, Vizhinjam Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 06/2002-05/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Periyakadu INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pozhikarai INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam Bay (Lat: 8.37) (Long: 76.93) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chinnamuttom (Lat: 8.1) (Long: 77.56) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Leepuram (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 77.55) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.75) (Long: 78.20) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad (Lat: 8.37) (Long: 78.06) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Uvari (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 77.89) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Kudankulam (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.71) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Kadiapattanam (Lat: 8.12) (Long: 77.30) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Colachel (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.26) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)

Literature Source(s)
  • Abdul, JAH and Sivakumar, V (2007) Occurrence and distribution of ascidians in Vizhinjam Bay (south west coast of India) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342(1) 189-190 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.10.041
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Guidebook of introduced marine species of Hawaii Bishop Museum and University of Hawaii Available at - http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/invertguide/index.htm
  • Ramkumar, R and Edward, JKP (2004) Recruitment of epibenthic communities on artificial reefs in Tuticorin coastal waters, southeast coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 46(1) 108-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Meenakshi, VK; Renganathan, TK; Senthamarai, S and Jeyalakshmi, J (2003) Marine biodiversity - Taxonomy of Indian Ascidians Technical report Available at - Biodiversity Informatics Group, NIO, Goa
  • Jaffarali, HA; Sivakumar, V and Selvi, MT (2010) New records of colonial Ascidians from the South West coast of India Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research IDOSI Publications 5(5) 366-373 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr5%285%29/9.pdf
  • Jaffar Ali, AH; Sivakumar, V and Tamilselvi, M (2009) Distribution of Alien and Cryptogenic Ascidians along the Southern Coasts of Indian Peninsula World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 1(4) 305-312 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms1%284%2909/9.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-02-01

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