Polyclinum fungosum   Herdman,  1886 (Sea Squirt)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Ascidiacea

Size: Colonies 1-3 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick

Color: Sandy, Varies from purple brown to greenish brown

Colonies rounded, smooth cushions. Upper surface completely encrusted by a thin layer of sand interrupted only by the common cloacal apertures (4-5 mm apart). 8-12 zooids grouped around the cloacal opening.

Zooids about 4-5 mm long with a transparent narrow thorax, horizontal gut loop and a sac like posterior abdomen with a short neck. Branchial siphon with six triangular pointed lobes. Atrial languet has a pointed or flat serrated tip. Fine longitudinal muscles in the anterior part of the thorax. 10-15 branchial tentacles. Wide prestigmatal area. Branchial sac narrow with 11 rows of 12 long oval stigmata. Dorsal languets large, curved. Branchial papilla shallow, flat one for each stigmata. Oesophagus curved, directed posteriorly, stomach smooth, oval. Sac like posterior abdomen connected to the thorax by a short neck. The shape and size of the posterior abdomen and the number of male follicles vary (17-22 male follicles and 6-7 ova). Male follicles are arranged towards the periphery with the ova in the centre. 2-3 embryos in the right peribranchial cavity. Larval trunk measures 0.5 mm with a tail wound three quarter of the way, 3 anterior adhesive papillae and 8 ectodermal ampullae.

Synonym (s)
Macroclinum fungosum (Herdman, 1886)
(New combination)
Synoicum fungosum (Herdman, 1886)
(New combination)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Demersal, Rocky, Coastal


• Kerala, Vizhinjam Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Alanthalai INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Abdul, JAH and Sivakumar, V (2007) Occurrence and distribution of ascidians in Vizhinjam Bay (south west coast of India) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342(1) 189-190 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.10.041
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Meenakshi, VK (1998) Three species of polyclinid ascidians - New records to Indian waters Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 40(1&2) 201-205 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Meenakshi, VK; Renganathan, TK; Senthamarai, S and Jeyalakshmi, J (2003) Marine biodiversity - Taxonomy of Indian Ascidians Technical report Available at - Biodiversity Informatics Group, NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2010-08-24

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