Stolephorus tri   (Bleeker,  1852) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: FAO

Size: Maximum 12 cm; common 9 to 10 cm

Color: A silvery lateral band, caudal yellowish with a black margin.

Body fusiform, somewhat compressed. Snout pointed, much projecting, shorter than eye. Maxillary produced to gill opening. Dorsal much nearer to base of caudal than to snout. Its origin far behind origin of ventrals, about midway between snout and caudal. Anal 4½ - 5 in length, as long as head or a little shorter, its origin below last ¼ of dorsal. Vantrals about midway between suboperculum and anal. Pectorals pointed, scarcely longer than postorbital part of head. Caudal deeply incised, about 4 in length. Scales thin, generally reticulated, very deciduous, 4-5 abdominal spiny scutes between pectorals and ventrals. 21 stout, serrulated gillrakers, somewhat longer than half of eye, longer than branchial filaments. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 17 - 18.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum, egg scatterers.

Synonym (s)
Anchoviella tri (Bleeker, 1852)
(Senior synonym)
Engraulis tri Bleeker, 1852
(Senior synonym)
Anchoviella tri Fowler, 1941
Stolephorus baganensis baganensis Hardenberg, 1933

Common Name (s)
• White Bait (English)
• Kella (Kannada)
• Nethal (Malayalam)
• Manangu (Malayalam)
• Nethali (Tamil)
• Porava (Tamil)
• Nethali (Telugu)
• Porasa (Telugu)
• Spined Anchovy (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; marketed fresh, dried, dried-salted or made into fish meal, fish sauce or fish balls.)

Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Planktonic organisms, especially zooplankton
Predator:  Bonyfish (Johnius dussumieri)


• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Kerala, Calicut INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1965) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E.J. Brill, Leiden, Holland 2 404 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Whitehead, PJP (1972) A synopsis of the clupeoid fishes of India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 14(1) 160-256 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-05

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