Himantura imbricata   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: 22 cm - 32 cm; 75 mm (at birth); may grow to a maximum of 140 cm disc length in the sea.

Color: Dorsal side of the disc pinkish brown and margins of pectoral fins relatively translucent. Dorsal side of the tail of the same color as the disc and slightly white margins visible. Ventral side of disc and tail white.

Disc relatively rounded, disc length approximately equal or slightly bigger than disc width. Snout clearly pointed. Eye and spiracle length more than 2.5 times in preorbital snout length. Mouth small, snout tip to distal nasal flap margin more than 3.5 times mouth width. Labial furrows absent. Nasal flap long and square. Nostrils long, 2.5 times mouth width and parallel. A narrow band of denticles starting between the eyes and following in the tail like a line up to the first sting insertion. A line of 5-10 medial thorns between the very marked branchial arcs, one spine-like longer than the other. Tail as long as the disc and dorso-ventrally flattened. skin folds absent. Two stings, the first longer than the second. Pelvic fins small.

Dioecism, internal fertilization, bearers, exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures. Distinct pairing with embrace. Ovoviviparous.

Synonym (s)
Amphotistius imbricatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Dasyatis imbricata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Dasybatus imbricatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Himantura imbricata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Leiobatis polylepis (Bleeker, 1852)
(Junior synonym)
Raja imbricata Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Raja obtusa Ehrenberg, 1871
(Ambiguous synonym)
Trygon imbricata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Trygon polylepis Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Dasyatis imbricatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Common Name (s)
• Scaly Stingray (English)
• Schneider's Scaly Stingray (English)
• Sting Ray (English )
• Mookan Thirandi (Malayalam)
• Pakat (Marathi)
• Scaly whip ray (English)
• Scaly whipray (English)
• Savukku thirukkai (Tamil)
• Hagar (Marathi)
• Senthirukkai (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries; It is utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption.

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Gastropods, crabs and other benthic invertebrates
IUCN Status:  Data Deficient


• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• SRI LANKA (Record: 10/1991-12/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA (Record: 2002-2007)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• North West Coast INDIA
• Southwest Coast INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Moron, J; Bertrand, B and Last, P (1998) A check-list of sharks and rays of western Sri Lanka Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 40(1&2) 142-157 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Mohanraj, G; Batcha, TH and Rajapackiam, S (2010) Ray fishery by trawlers off Chennai and some aspects of biology of the scaly whipray Himantura imbricata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin 52(1) 92-95 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5841/1/12._Sho.pdf
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4056/1/Special_Publn_95.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-02

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