Crassostrea gryphoides   (Scholtheim)  (Oyster)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Bivalvia

Image copyrights: Government of India

Size: Width 105-130 mm; height 52.70-91.20 mm.

Shell stout, bulky, elongated and irregular shape; inner margin pearly white; cavity beneath the hinge well marked; muscle scar broad and more or less oblong striations on the muscle scar. Shell oblong, narrow in the anterior margin and broader in the posterior margin, laminated, lower valve very thick, especially in the anterior region below the ligamental area, ligamental area drawn out to a considerable distance, broad and has a deep groove in the middle; it generally curves to the left and in some to the right, transverse and longitudinal striations in groove area; upper valve thin, flat and opercular; no denticles on the margin; interior of valves white and glossy; muscle scar more or less heart-shaped and pearly white.

This species was considered as fossil species by many authors. Newton and Smith (1912) collected this species and concluded that Crassostrea gryphoides was a Miocene species and it was supported by Brown (1924), but Awati and Rai (1931) and Ahmed (1971) considered it as a living species.

Synonym (s)
Oystrea gryphoides Schlotheim, 1813
Crassostrea gryphoides Ahmed, 1971
Ostrea gryphoides Newton and Smith, 1912
Ostrea gryphoides Awati and Rai, 1931
Crassostrea gryphoides Durve and Bal, 1961

Common Name (s)
• Giant Oyster (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Possess high antiviral activity)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Rocky, Muddy


• West Bengal, North 24 Parganas INDIA
• Goa, Chapora estuary (Lat: 15.83) (Long: 70.83) INDIA
• West Bengal, Baghbagan INDIA (Record: 13/11/1989)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Maharashtra, Bhatia Creek INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.9) (Long: 72.66) INDIA
• Orissa, Cuttack Coast INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Subba Rao, NV; Dey, A and Barua, S (1992) Estuarine and marine molluscs Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3) ZSI, Calcutta 129-268 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Chatterji, A., Ansari, ZA., Ingole, BS., Bichurina, MA., Sovetova, M., Boikov, YA. (2002) Indian marine bivalves: Potential source of antiviral drugs Current Science 82(10) 1279-1282 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Chatterji, A., Ansari, ZA., Ingole, BS and Parulekar, AH. (1985) Length-weight relationship of Giant Oyster, Crassostrea gyphoides (Schlotheim) Mahasagar-Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography 18 521-524 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jaiswar, AK and Kulkarni, BG (2001) Vertical distribution of molluscs in the intertidal area in and around Mumbai, India Journal of Indian fisheries association Indian fisheries association, Mumbai, India 28 93-100 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mane, UH and Nagabhushanam, R (1987) Reproduction in edible bivalve shellfishes of Ratnagiri coast National seminar on shellfish resources and farming CMFRI 167-176 Available at -
  • Alagarswami, K and Narasimham, KA (1973) Clam, cockle and oyster resources of the indian coasts Living resources of the seas around India CMFRI, Cochin 648-658 Available at -
  • Gaonkar, CA; Sawant, SS; Anil, AC; Krishnamurthy, V and Harkantra, SN (2010) Changes in the occurance of hard substratum fauna: A case study from Mumbai harbour, India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India 39(1) 74-84 Available at -
  • Rao, KS (1974) Edible bivalves; mussels and oysters The commercial molluscs of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 25 4-39 Available at -
  • Jones, S (1969) The molluscan fishery resources of India Proceedings of the Symposium on Mollusca CMFRI 906-918 Available at -
  • Das, AK and Roy, MKD (1989) A general account of the mangrove fauna of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fauna of conservation areas Zoological survey of India 1-152 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-19

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