Parasmittina californica   (Robertson,  1908) (Bryozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gymnolaemata

Size (Zooecium): Length 410-480 µ; breadth 300-340 µ.

Encrusting. Colonies with coarse zooecia having more or less quadrangular shape. Zooecia separated by grooves, and their mural rims obscured when secondary calcification takes place. Calcified front a pleurocyst but irregularly arranged pores often present. Thin and low peristome. Primary orifice rounded with a moderately developed lyrula and two small condyles. Laterally directed oval, pointed, spatulate avicularia placed on various parts of the front. A large spatulate proximo-laterally directed avicularium occasionally present. No oral spines. Heavily calcified ovicells perforated. Their proximal region usually invaded by the peristome.

Synonym (s)
Mucronella californica Robertson, 1907
Parasmittina californica Osburn, 1952
Parasmittina californica Soule and Duff, 1957
Parasmittina californica Soule, 1961
Parasmittina californica Soule and Soule, 1964
Parasmittina californica Menon and Nair, 1967
Parasmittina californica Menon and Nair, 1972

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 24/02/1964) (Depth: 18 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Menon, NR and Menon, NN (2006) Taxonomy of Bryozoa from the Indian EEZ. A monograph Ocean Science and Technology Cell on Marine Benthos, Kochi and Centre for Marine Living resources and Ecology, Kochi 263 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Menon, NR and Nair, NB (1967) The ectoproctous bryozoans of the Indian waters Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 9(2) 430-432 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-06-01

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