Parasmittina tropica   (Waters,  1909) (Bryozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gymnolaemata

Size (Zooecium): Length 320-430 µ; breadth 210-270 µ.

Encrusting. Whitish in hue. Zooecia arranged in longitudinal rows, separated by grooves. Marginal pores represented in every zooecium. Front convex and tuberculated. Oral spines present, usually three in number. Distally rounded aperture with a distinct rounded or elongate-oval sinus. The sinus limited by two lateral cusps, which may be pointed or even bifurcated at the tip. Lateral oral avicularia represented in all zooecia, very long and acute, directed proximally, placed over a swelling of the front. Rostrum everted distally with well developed distal spinules. Mandible long and pointed. Primary orifice rounded, provided with a broad and truncate lyrule and two backwardly directed cardelles. Ovicells small, convex and perforated. Ectooecium do not cover the frontal surface.

Synonym (s)
Smittia trispinosa Thornely (pars), 1905
Smittia rostriformis Thornely, 1907
Smittia tropica Waters, 1909
Smittina rostriformis Livingstone, 1926
Smittina tropica Harmer, 1957
Parasmittina tropica Menon and Nair, 1967
Parasmittina tropica Menon and Nair, 1972

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• Kerala, Off Kollam INDIA (Record: 22/04/1965) (Depth: 50 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Menon, NR and Menon, NN (2006) Taxonomy of Bryozoa from the Indian EEZ. A monograph Ocean Science and Technology Cell on Marine Benthos, Kochi and Centre for Marine Living resources and Ecology, Kochi 263 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -

Page last updated on:2010-10-04

Back to Search