Plegadis falcinellus   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Ciconiiformes
Family:Threskiornithidae

Image copyrights: Ron Saldino

Description
Size: Length 55-71 cm.

Color: Dark with purple gloss on neck, back and head, green gloss on wing coverts; non-breeding greener with greyish below. Immature sooty black with brown below. Bare parts: iris brown; facial skin purplish black, blue at start of breeding season; bill olive brown, decurved; feet and legs olive brown.

Habits: Gregarious and shy; small to large flocks of 40 to 50 birds: feed in shallow water.

Breeding season: May to July. Nest- on trees in or near water.


Synonym (s)
Tantalus falcinellus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Common Name (s)
• Glossy Ibis (English)
• Chhota baza (Hindi)
• Kachia tora (Bengali)
• That kankanam (Telugu)
• Karuppu kottan (Tamil)
• Chemban ibis (Malayalam)
• Mor sherati (Marathi)
• Kawari (Hindi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is threatened by wetland habitat degradation and loss through drainage for irrigation and hydroelectric power production, clearing, grazing, burning, increased salinity, groundwater extraction and invasion by exotic plants. It is also threatened locally by hunting, disturbance and pesticides.)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus )

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Molluscs, crustaceans, worms and insects
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Goa, Agarwaddo marshes INDIA (Record: 09/11/1988)
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• Goa, Neura INDIA
• Goa, Chapora estuary INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Pallikaranai Wetlands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Maharashtra, Navi Mumbai INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Birds of India Available at - http://www.kolkatabirds.com/
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Pandya PJ and Vachhrajani KD (2010) Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) 994-1000pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/June/o231626vi10994-1000.pdf
  • Nikhil Raj PP, Ranjini J, Dhanya R, Subramanian J, Azeez PA and Bhupathy S (2010) Consolidated checklist of birds in the Pallikaranai Wetlands, Chennai, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(8) 1114-1118pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/July/o222026vii101114-1118.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2011/April/o187026iv111663-1676.pdf
  • Pawar PP (2011) Species diversity of birds in mangroves of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, West coast of India Journal of Experimental Sciences 2(10) 73-77 Available at - jexpsciences.com/article/download/11210/5666
  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/v099/p00031-p00034.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-09-26

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