Paraplagusia bilineata   (Bloch,  1784) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Pleuronectiformes
Family:Cynoglossidae

Image copyrights: Gloerfelt-Tarp, T.

Description
Size: Maximum 30 cm; common 15 to 25 cm

Color: Upper side tan, marbled with dark wavy lines enclosing pale patches.

Body flat and elongate. Eyes on left side of head with a scaly space between them. Pectoral fin absent. Height 3.3-3.5, 3.6-3.9 in length with caudal. Head 3.9-4.3, 4-4.6 in length with caudal. Eyes 10 or more, the upper one well in advance of lower one, separated by a scaly interspace which is one half to almost one eye diameter. Corner of mouth below hind border of lower eye, much nearer to branchial opening than to end of snout. Hook of upper jaw extending farther than vertical through hindborder of lower eye, generally very much so. Scales ctenoid on both sides. Two lateral lines on colored side, separated by 16-18 scales. 2 lateral lines on eyed side, none on blind side. Caudal vertebrae 36-44; mid-lateral line scales 75-109. Rostral hook long and reaches beyond lower eye. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 99 - 115; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 72 - 89; Vertebrae: 50.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Pleuronectes bilineata Bloch, 1784
Plagusia marmorata Bleeker, 1877
Paraplagusia formosana Oshima, 1927
(Junior synonym)
Paraplagusia macrocephalus Bleeker, 1865
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia acumineata Castelnau, 1875
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia bilineata (Bloch, 1787)
(Senior synonym)
Plagusia brevirostris Kent, 1893
(Ambiguous synonym)
Plagusia dypterygia Ruppell, 1828
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia marmorata Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia notata De Vis, 1883
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia robinsoni Regan, 1919
(Junior synonym)
Pleuronectes bilineatus Bloch, 1787
(Senior synonym)
Rhinoplagusia australis Rendahl, 1922
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia dipterygia Ruppell, 1831
Plagusia marmorata Gunther, 1862
Plagusia marmorata Kner, 1867
Plagusia bilineata Klunzinger, 1871
Plagnsia marmorata Day, 1888
Paraplagusia marmorata Fowler, 1905
Plagusia marmorata Gunther, 1909
Paraplagusia marmorata Tate Regan, 1920
Paraplagusia marmorata (Bleeker, 1851)
Paraplagusia bilineatus (Bloch, 1787)
Pleuronectes bilineata Bloch, 1787
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Doublelined Tongue Sole (English)
• Fingerlip Tonguesole (English)
• Nedu Nakka (Tamil)
• Arabu (Telugu)
• Nahiah Ku (Telugu)
• Lep (Marathi)
• Two Lined Tongue Sole (English)
• Rock Sole (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries)

Ecology
Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Benthic invertebrates
Predator:  Bony fishes (Gadus macrocephalus, Hippoglossus stenolepis)

Biogeography


• Maharashtra, Panchoo Bandar INDIA
• Maharashtra, Bassein INDIA
• Kerala, Trivandrum INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Red Sea
• SRI LANKA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Mohana (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Orissa, Puri INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Uppada INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Kurian, CV (1953) A preliminary survey of the bottom fauna and bottom deposits of the Travancore coast within the 15-fathom line Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India 19 746–775 Available at - http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b8b_747.pdf
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/Mahasagar/Mahasagar_V-18/Mahasagar_18%284%29_489.pdf
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Indian Mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv) Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-09

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