Cynoglossus bilineatus   (Lacepede,  1802) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: IGFA

Size: Maximum 35 cm; common 15 to 30 cm

Color: Eyed side brown with an irregular dark blotch on gill cover, blind side white.

Elongate. Height 3.4-4.3, head 4-4.4 in length without caudal. Eyes 9-10, the hind border of the upper one almost or quite above the middle of the lower one, more than one eye diameter nearer to end of snout than to branchial opening. On colored side one nostril is tubular and situated on upper lip, before lower eye, the other one is pierced through interorbital space, which is scaly and slightly less than eye. On the blind side the two nostrils are placed at some distance of each other above the upper curvature of the mouth, the anterior one is tubular, the posterior one with a more or less distinct semilunar rim. Corner of mouth nearer to branchial opening than to snout, situated somewhat behind hind margin of lower eye. Hook of upper jaw somewhat more or less than one eye-diameter before vertical through front border of eye. Dorsal beginning near end of snout. All fin rays simple, without scaly covering. Scales ctenoid on colored side, cycloid on blind side. Scales of head, of body immediately behind branchial opening and along base and anal, smaller than the rest. On blind side of head the scales are transformed into papillae. Two lateral lines on colored side, the upper one separated by 7-8 scales from base of dorsal and by 15-16 from middle lateral line, which has 23-25 scales between it and base of anal. Two lateral lines, a superior and a middle one, on blind side. Eyes with a small scaly interorbital space. Snout rounded. Rostral hook short. Corner of mouth reaching posteriorly beyond lower eye, nearer to gill opening than to tip of snout. Caudal-fin rays usually 12. Midlateral-line scales 88 to 96. Scales ctenoid on eyed side of body. Cycloid on blind side. Scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side of body 13 to 16. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 107 - 113; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 80 - 88.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Achirus bilineatus Lacepede, 1802
(Senior synonym)
Arelia bilineata (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Arelia diplasios (Jordan & Evermann, 1902)
(Junior synonym)
Arelia quadrilineata (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus diplasios Jordan & Evermann, 1902
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus quadrilineata (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus quinquelineatus Day, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus sindensis Day, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia quadrilineata Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia bilineata Ruppell, 1831
Arelia quadrilineata Kaup, 1858
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Gunther, 1862
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Kner, 1867
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Bleeker, 1872
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Klunzinger, 1871
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Macleay, 1884
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Alcock, 1889
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Steindachner, 1902
Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Smith and Pope, 1906
Cynoglossus bilineatus M. Weber, 1913
Cynoglossus bilineatus Norman, 1926
Cynoglossus bilinetaus (Lacepede, 1802)

Common Name (s)
• Fourlined Tongue Sole (English)
• Lep (Marathi)
• Lined Tongue Sole
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Utilized as a food fish; marketed fresh and frozen; also dried salted)

Habitat:  Benthic, Demersal, Estuarine
Prey:  Benthic invertebrates.


• Maharashtra, Jaigad INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Off South West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1968) (Depth: 10-75 mts)
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Devipatnam INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at -
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at -
  • Silas, EG (1969) Part-1 Exploratory otter trawling surveys by R.V. Varuna and other vessels operating in association with her from the continental shelf edge and the upper continental slope off the south-west coast of India Exploratory fishing by R.V. Varuna Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 12 7-51 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-11

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