Bugula robusta   (Mac Gill,  1869) (Bryozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gymnolaemata

Image copyrights: Karen Gowlett-Holmes

Size (Zooecium): Length 750 µ; breadth 290 µ.

Zoarium robust. Attachment to the substratum by tuft if strong, long rootlets. Narrow zigzag lines present on the basal side of zooecia. Zoaria of type 5 branching with biserial zooids. Projecting lateral sides of the zooecia give a serrated margin for the zooidal rows. The distal region of the zooecia raised and hence that region slightly overarches the proximal region of the succeeding one. Basal surface of the zooecium with a pointed or blunt calcareous spine, arising from the proximal region extending up to the distal end. The operculum not distinct. Opesia smaller than the aperture because of the slight development of a smooth cryptocyst proximally. Gymnocyst present proximally the extent of which differs in different zooecia of the same zoarium. Lateral avicularia placed over rounded prominences proximally. Rostrum strongly hooked, upper profile concave and with two cusps. Mandibles with slightly bent tip. No ovicell noticed.

Synonym (s)
Bugula robusta Mac Gillivray, 1869
Bugula neretina Waters, 1886
Bugula neretina Thornely, 1905
Bugula neretina Thornely, 1907
Bugula neretina Thornely, 1912
Bugula neretina var. tenuata Thornely, 1912
Bugula neretina var. rubra Thornely, 1912
Bugula neretina var. minima Waters, 1913
Bugula neretina forma minima Marcus, 1921
Bugula robusta Harmer, 1926
Bugula robusta Menon and Nair, 1967
Bugula robusta Menon and Nair, 1974

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats



• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 24/02/1964) (Depth: 18 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Menon, NR and Menon, NN (2006) Taxonomy of Bryozoa from the Indian EEZ. A monograph Ocean Science and Technology Cell on Marine Benthos, Kochi and Centre for Marine Living resources and Ecology, Kochi 263 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Recent and fossil bryozoa Available at - http://www.bryozoa.net/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Menon, NR and Nair, NB (1967) The ectoproctous bryozoans of the Indian waters Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 9(2) 430-432 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-06-01

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