Otolithes ruber   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Khan, M.M.

Size: 75-90 cm.

Max. published weight: 7,000 g.

Color: Brownish red, shot with silvery and white, sometimes glossed with gold in lower third of body, first dorsal stained back at its edge, soft dorsal and anal with grayish outer margin, pectorals, ventrals and anal yellow.

Elongate, height 3.5 to 4.5, head 3.5 to more than 4 in length. Eye situated in anterior half of head, 4-6 in head, 1 to 1.5 in snout and flat inter orbital space. Mouth oblique, upper jaw reaches posterior third of eye, maxillary concealed. Teeth on either side of symphysis of upper jaw a pair of large canines, an inner villiform band and a row of outer teeth conically curved, occasionally even between the canines, in the lower jaw a central (sometimes a second) curved canine with a few villiform teeth behind it, and a lateral row of distantly placed conical teeth. Preopercle serrulate to scarcely denticulated, opercle with two flat spines, post temporal crenulate. Scales ciliate, lateral line slightly arched, sensory tubes distally arborescent. Base of spinous dorsal more than twice in that of soft dorsal, both deeply incised, the spines slender, second and third highest, half or somewhat more of height of body and half or more higher than rays. Anal originating somewhat behind middle of soft dorsal, rounded, second spine rather weak 2/5 length of first ray. Pectorals equal to head without snout, Ventrals do not reach quite halfway to the vent. Caudal wedge-shaped in young, getting rounded or even truncate with age. Dorsal spines (total): 10-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27-30; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 7-8.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportion.

Synonym (s)
Johnius ruber Schneider, 1801
Otolithus argenteus Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1876
Johnius ruber Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Otolithes argenteus (Cuvier, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Otolithoides ruber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Otolithus argenteus Cuvier, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Otolithus orientalis Seale, 1910
(Junior synonym)
Otolithus ruber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Otolithus tridentifer Richardson, 1846
(Junior synonym)
Otolithus versicolor Cuvier, 1829
(Ambiguous synonym)
Otolithus ruber Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Otolithus ruber Cantor, 1850
Otolithus ruber Bleeker, 1852
Otolithus ruber Gunther, 1860
Otolithus submaculatus Blyth, 1861
Otolithus ruber Day, 1865
Otolithus submaculatus Day, 1860
Otolithus ruber Bleeker, 1874
Otolithus ruber Day, 1889
Otolithus ruber Duncker, 1904
Otolithus ruber Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908
Otolithus ruber Zugmayer, 1913
Otolithus ruber Jordan and Starks, 1917
Otolithus ruber Barnard, 1927
Otolithes ruber Fowler, 1929
Otolithes rubber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Common Name (s)
• Tiger Toothed Croaker (English)
• Dhoma
• Croaker (English)
• Drum (English)
• Goli (Kannada)
• Kuddali (Kannada)
• Kora (Malayalam)
• Pallikkora (Malayalam)
• Pallikora (Malayalam)
• Thallakkora (Malayalam)
• Kathalai (Tamil)
• Panna (Tamil)
• Vanakathalai (Tamil)
• Vellaikathalai (Tamil)
• Gorasa (Telugu)
• Pullipanna (Telugu)
• Borai
• Tigertooth Croaker
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish; marketed fresh, may be dried or salted.)

Habitat:  Bentho Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, prawns and other invertebrates; teleosteans, mysids and echiurid worms, Amphipods, fish post-larvae and crab megalopa


• Maharashtra, Panchoo Bandar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 20.95) (Long: 90.5) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 88 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.81) INDIA (Record: 12/2005-11/2006) (Depth: 12-30 mts)
• Maharashtra, Kila Bander INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Tamil Nadu, Thanjavur INDIA
• Kerala, Off Calicut INDIA (Record: 1948-1953) (Depth: 3.65-14.63 mts)
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Veerappan, N; Anbalagan, T and Balasubramanian, T (2009) Survey on sound producing marine fishes and Ichthyoplankters of Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science International Digital Organization for Scientific Information 6(1) 35-40 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes6(1)/6.pdf
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Page last updated on:2012-01-25

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