Johnius belangerii   (Cuvier,  1830) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Maximum 30 cm; common to 20 cm

Color: Darkly pigmented, but pigment sometimes irregular and concentrated into short dark bars along back or on dorsal fin; Spinous part of dorsal fin black, lower fins also black in many cases; a dark blotch shows through gill cover.

A medium sized species with a steeply rounded snout. Mouth small, slightly inferior; no barbel on chin; rostral pores 5, marginal pores 5, the marginal deeply dividing the edge into 4 lobes; mental pores 5; teeth differentiated into large and small in upper jaw only, the large ones close-set, not canine-like, forming the outer series; lower jaw teeth villiform; sagitta (large earstone) with a tadpole-shaped impression, of which the "head" has its long axis lying obliquely to that of the otolith and the "tail" is expanded and deepened as a hollow cone, connected with the "head" by a narrow groove; gillrakers very short, 8 to 10 on lower limb of first arch. Dorsal fin with 9 or 10 spines, followed by a deep notch, second part of fin with 1 spine and 27 to 31 soft rays; pectoral fins moderately long, about 3/4 of head length; anal fin with 2 spines and 7 or 8 soft rays, the second spine rather strong and about 1/2 (38 to 49%) of head length; caudal fin rhomboid. Scales cycloid (smooth) on snout and lower parts of head, elsewhere strongly ctenoid (very rough to touch); lateral line scales reaching to tip of caudal fin. Swimbladder hammer-shaped, wit 11 to 15 pairs of arborescent appendages, the first entering the head and sending a palmate branch to the front of pectoral arch.

Synonym (s)
Sciaena belengeri Day, 1876
Corvina australis (non Gunther, 1880)
(Misapplied name)
Corvina belengerii Cuvier, 1830
(Senior synonym)
Corvina carouna (non Cuvier, 1830)
(Misapplied name)
Corvina comes (non De Vis, 1884)
(Misapplied name)
Corvina kuhlii Cuvier, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Corvina lobata Cuvier, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Corvina nallakatshelee Richardson, 1846
Johnius australis (non Gunther, 1880)
(Misapplied name)
Johnius belangerii (Cuvier, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Johnius belengeri (Cuvier, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Johnius belengerii (Cuvier, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Johnius carouna (non Cuvier, 1830)
(Misapplied name)
Johnius fasciatus (non Chu, Lo & Wu, 1963)
(Misapplied name)
Johnius weberi (non Hardenberg, 1936)
(Misapplied name)
Pseudomycterus maccullochi Ogilby, 1908
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena belengeri (Cuvier, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Sciaena nasus Steindachner, 1866
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena (Corvina) nasus Steindachner, 1866
Corvina australis Gunther, 1880

Common Name (s)
• Dhoma
• Belanger's Croaker (English)
• Tooroo Katchelee (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh and dried salted.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Prey:  Invertebrates, benthic worms
Predator:  Paralichthys olivaceus, Okamejei kenojei, Hydroprogne tschegrava


• Maharashtra, Mirkarwada INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Arabian Sea
• Maharashtra, Panchoo Bandar INDIA
• Maharashtra, Bassein INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Kakinada INDIA (Record: 1990-1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.81) INDIA (Record: 12/2005-11/2006) (Depth: 12-30 mts)
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Off Kandla INDIA (Record: 1986-1987)
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sivakami, S and Ramalingam, P (2003) The Sciaenid fishery resources off Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 74-87 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Veerappan, N; Anbalagan, T and Balasubramanian, T (2009) Survey on sound producing marine fishes and Ichthyoplankters of Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science International Digital Organization for Scientific Information 6(1) 35-40 Available at -
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at -
  • Nair, VR; Govindan, K; Ramaiah, N and Gajbhiye, SN (1993) Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 23 91-103 Available at -
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Sciaenid Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Roy, SD; Rajan, PT and Soundararajan, S (2006) Marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fishing Chimes 25(10) 108-110 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-25

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