Acanthopagrus berda   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Maximum 75 cm; common to 30 cm.

Max. weight reported: 3,200 g.

Color: Grey, dark silver/grey or dull olive/brown with silvery or brassy reflections; upper part of body and base of scales darkest, lower part of head and body paler, a dark edge along opercle. Spinous dorsal fin with a dark edge and spines often silvery; pectoral fins dusky with a yellow tinge, soft dorsal, anal and pelvic fins blackish; caudal fin grey with darker shading.

Body fairly deep, compressed, its depth about twice in standard length. Head 3 or 4 times in standard length, its upper profile straight (sometimes a bulge above eye); snout pointed; eye moderate in size; ventral profile almost straight to anus; in both jaws, 4 to 6 large, more or less compressed teeth in front, followed by 3 to 5 rows of molar-like teeth; upper lateral teeth of outer row conical and blunt; gillrakers 9 to 11 on lower limb of first arch. Dorsal fin with 11 (rarely 12) spines and 10 to 13 (usually 11 to 12) soft rays, 4th to 6th spines longest (spines appear alternately broad and narrow on either side); anal fin with 3 spines and 8 or 9 soft rays, 1st spine shorter than eye diameter, 2nd spine flattened laterally, longer and stronger than the 3rd; pelvic fins with a strong spine; caudal fin slightly forked, with rounded lobes. Scales large, 43 to 45 in lateral line (to base of caudal fin); 4 to 4.5 scale rows between lateral line and 4th dorsal spine; a scaly sheath at base of dorsal and anal fins; a long pelvic axillary process.

Protandrous hermaphrodite, external fertilization. Age at sex change is 1.95 years.

Synonym (s)
Chrysophrys berda Day, 1875
Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Acanthopagrus vagus Peters, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Chrysophrys berda (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Chrysophrys berda calamara Day, 1876
(Junior synonym)
Chrysophrys calamara Valanciennes, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Chrysophrys estuarius Gilchrist & Thompson, 1908
(Junior synonym)
Chrysophrys hasta (non Valenciennes, 1830)
(Misapplied name)
Chrysophrys longispinnis Valanciennes, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Chrysophrys madagascariensis Valenciennes, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Chrysophrys robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson, 1908
(Junior synonym)
Chrysophrys vagus Peters, 1868
(Junior synonym)
Mylio berda (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Pagrus berda (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Pagrus caffer Castelnau, 1861
(Junior synonym)
Pagrus robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson, 1908)
(Junior synonym)
Sparidentex hasta (non Valenciennes, 1830)
(Misapplied name)
Sparus berda Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Sparus calamara Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Sparus hasta Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Sparus longispinnis (Valenciennes, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Sparus madagascariensis (Valenciennes, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Sparus vagus (Peters, 1852)
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Picnic Seabream (English)
• Kharva
• Black Sae Bream (English)
• Kali Kishi (Gujarati)
• Kharapla (Gujarati)
• Aree (Malayalam)
• Kali Kishi (Marathi)
• Khadak Palu (Marathi)
• Khadak Paalu (Marathi)
• Calamara (Telugu)
• Coorree (Tamil)
• Currapu Mattawa (Tamil)
• Moorookeedah
• Black Bream (English)
• Black Rock Cod (English)
• Timro
• Picnic Silverbream
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Invertebrates, including worms, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms and small fish.
Predator:  Crocodylus niloticus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Haliaeetus vocifer, Hydroprogne tschegrava


• Maharashtra, Rajvada Bandar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at -
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Tike, MJ; Samant, JS; Mohite, SA (2009) Diversity status of minor fish and shellfish along Malvan coast, Maharshtra Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology, India 24(2) 441-448 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-02-01

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