Tringa glareola   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: pbase

Description
Color: A snipe-like wader, sepia brown above, indistinctly spotted with white. Lower back and rump white. Breast pale brownish. Whitish stripe above eye from bill to nape. Summer (breeding) plumage brighter, with spots more defined. In flight, the white rump and barred brown-and-white tail diagnostic. No wing-bar.

Voice: The Spotted Sandpiper utters a shrill chiff-chiff-chiff as it takes off.

Sexes alike. Singly or small flocks, at jheels and marshes.

Habits: One of the commonest and also most gregarious of the group of little wading birds found near inland waters and at marshes, flooded paddy fields and tidal mudflats, popularly and collectively known as 'snippets'. They run along on the squelchy mud picking up tit-bits, or probe with their bills for food, wagging the tail end of the body ridiculously up and down. The flushing notes of the different species are useful pointers to their identity.

Nesting: Season- in Europe and N. Asia, May/June. Nest- a scantily lined-depression on a dry patch in marshy grass-covered localities.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Wood Sandpiper (English)
• Spotted Sandpiper (English)
• Chupka (Hindi)
• Chobaha (Hindi)
• Titwari (Hindi)
• Kata kokku (Malayalam)
• Chinna ulanka, Podala ulanki (Telugu)
• Vayal ullan, Kottan (Tamil)
• Dirghalav, Thipkewala tutari (Marathi)
• Vana tutvari (Gujrati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species is susceptible to both avian botulism and avian malaria, so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(exploitation, and peatland drainage and destruction for forestry and agriculture)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Insects, larvae, worms and molluscs.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Goa, Velsao INDIA (Record: 02/01/1981)
• Goa, Santa Cruz INDIA
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• PAKISTAN
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Mangalore, Nethravathi INDIA
• Mangalore, Pavoor INDIA
• Mangalore, Someshwar INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Sundarban INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Pallikaranai Wetlands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Sundarban INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ali, S (1977) The book of Indian birds Bombay Natural History Society 175 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Birds of India Available at - http://www.kolkatabirds.com/
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/n058/p00024-p00027.pdf
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ramitha, M and Vijayalaxmi, KK. (2001) A checklist of Birds in and around Mangalore University campus, Karnataka Zoos' Print Journal Department of Studies and Research in Applied Zoology, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Karnataka, India. 16(5) 489-492 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2001/May/489-492.pdf
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Balchandran S, Rahmani AR and Sathiyaselvam P (2005) Habitat evaluation of Chilka lake with special reference to birds as bio-indicators Bombay Natural History Society 140pp Available at - http://www.chilika.com/Import%20docum/Final%20Report%202001-05.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/v099/p00031-p00034.pdf
  • Zöckler C, Balachandran S, Bunting GC, Fanck M, Kashiwagi M, Lappo EG, Maheswaran G, Sharma A, Syroechkovski EE and Webb K (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders Wader Study Group Bull 108 42–46pp Available at - http://m-h-s.org/stiftung/upload/pdf-downloadbar/Ornith_Expedition_Indien.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf
  • Shanbag A.B, Walia R and Borges S.D (2001) Impact of Konkan railway project on the avifauna of Carambolim lake in Goa Zoos' print journal 16(6) 503-508 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2001/June/503-508.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Kumar P and Gupta SK (2009) Diversity and Abundance of Wetland Birds around Kurukshetra, India Our Nature 7 212-217 Available at - http://www.mtnforum.org/sites/default/files/pub/6167.pdf
  • Nikhil Raj PP, Ranjini J, Dhanya R, Subramanian J, Azeez PA and Bhupathy S (2010) Consolidated checklist of birds in the Pallikaranai Wetlands, Chennai, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(8) 1114-1118pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/July/o222026vii101114-1118.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Deiva Oswin S (1999) Avifaunal diversity of Muthupet mangrove forest Zoo's print journal 14(6) 47-53 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/1999/June/47-53.pdf
  • Pande S, Sant N, Ranade S, Pednekar S, Mestry P, Deshpande P, Kharat S and Deshmukh V (2007) Avifaunal survey of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, January 2007 Indian Birds 3 (5) 162–180pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Avifaunal%20survey%20of%20Andaman%20and%20Nicobar%20Islands,%20January%202007.pdf
  • Zöckler C, Balachandran S, Bunting GC, Fanck M, Kashiwagi M, Lappo EG, Maheswaran G, Sharma A, Syroechkovski EE and Webb K (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders Wader Study Group Bull 108 42–46pp Available at - http://m-h-s.org/stiftung/upload/pdf-downloadbar/Ornith_Expedition_Indien.pdf
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/

Page last updated on:2013-02-05

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