Tringa stagnatilis   (Bechstein,  1803) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: Length: 23-25 cm.

Color: It is brownish grey on d above; below white with some streaking on sides of neck and chest; indistinct long whitish superciliary line; barred white tail--bars restricted to tail; white wedge on back between wings; breeding bird darker, more heavily streaked and spotted on head, breast and flanks. Immature browner above with cream edges to feathers. Bare parts: iris brown; bill black with greenish base, straight, fine and pointed; feet and legs various shades of green to yellow.
Palearctic migrant, some oversummer.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Marsh Sandpiper (English)
• Biler balubatan
• Chhanbhi chaha (Punjabi)
• Gandapug tutvari (Gujrati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species has disappeared as a breeding bird from eastern Europe, Belarus, Maldova and Russia as a result of steppe habitat losses due to agricultural intensification (such as increased ploughing), and possibly also due to egg-collecting. It may also be threatened by industrial pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (organic pollutants). Non-breeding In China and South Korea important migrational staging areas around the coast of the Yellow Sea are being lost through land reclamation and degraded as a result of declining river flows (from water abstraction), increased pollution, unsustainable harvesting of benthic fauna and a reduction in the amount of sediment being carried into the area by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. The species is also threatened by habitat loss in its wintering range, as wetland sites in Ghana are being degraded through coastal erosion and developments involving drainage and land reclamation.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  small fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and both aquatic and terrestrial insects
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Pallikaranai Wetlands INDIA
• Goa, Baga INDIA (Record: 14/11/1985)
• Goa, Chapora estuary INDIA
• Goa, Siolim-Gudem marsh INDIA
• Goa, Candolim marsh INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Panaji saltpans INDIA
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• Goa, Neura INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• West Bengal, Bangaon, Ichhamati River INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Sundarban INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/n058/p00024-p00027.pdf
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Saravanan, KR; Ilangovan, K and Khan, AB (2008) Floristic and macro faunal diversity of Pondicherry mangroves, South India Tropical Ecology International Association for Ecology, Cambridge University Press 49(1) 91-94 Available at - www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_1/11%20Saravanan.pdf
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, SR and Nandi, NC (2004) Oxbow lake environment and management of Ichhamati river basin, West Bengal Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 1(1&2) 81-90 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent ENVIS Newsletter: Avian Ecology and Inland Wetland 55pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(2).pdf
  • Avibase- the world database Available at - http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org
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  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/v099/p00031-p00034.pdf
  • Zöckler C, Balachandran S, Bunting GC, Fanck M, Kashiwagi M, Lappo EG, Maheswaran G, Sharma A, Syroechkovski EE and Webb K (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders Wader Study Group Bull 108 42–46pp Available at - http://m-h-s.org/stiftung/upload/pdf-downloadbar/Ornith_Expedition_Indien.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2011/April/o187026iv111663-1676.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Nikhil Raj PP, Ranjini J, Dhanya R, Subramanian J, Azeez PA and Bhupathy S (2010) Consolidated checklist of birds in the Pallikaranai Wetlands, Chennai, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(8) 1114-1118pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/July/o222026vii101114-1118.pdf
  • Pandya PJ and Vachhrajani KD (2010) Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) 994-1000pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/June/o231626vi10994-1000.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Pande S, Sant N, Ranade S, Pednekar S, Mestry P, Deshpande P, Kharat S and Deshmukh V (2007) Avifaunal survey of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, January 2007 Indian Birds 3 (5) 162–180pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Avifaunal%20survey%20of%20Andaman%20and%20Nicobar%20Islands,%20January%202007.pdf
  • Deiva Oswin S (1999) Avifaunal diversity of Muthupet mangrove forest Zoo's print journal 14(6) 47-53 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/1999/June/47-53.pdf
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2007/October/2839-2847.pdf
  • Gupta RC, Kaushik TK and Gupta PK (2012) WINTER MIGRATORY WETLAND BIRDS IN HARYANA ARE CONFRONTING ADVERSE CONDITIONS IN RURAL PONDS Resulting in reduction in arrival number: A case study of village Amin in Thanesar block in Kurukshetra district Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2 (1) 7pp Available at - http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2012/Vol%202%20No%201/1-002%20Gupta-Migratory.pdf
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of European Birds: An Essential Guide to Bird s of Europe Available at - http://books.google.co.in/books?id=RgPTUkhiSmkC&pg=PT1656&dq=Gallinago+stenura&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MpkDUNH9MobtrQfwmqWaBg&ved=0CFsQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=Gallinago%20stenura&f=false

Page last updated on:2013-02-05

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