Conopeum reticulum   (Linnaeus,  1767) (Bryozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gymnolaemata

Image copyrights: Marco Faasse

A colony of the sea mat Conopeum reticulum.

Size (Zooecium): Length 490 µ; breadth 210 µ.

Encrusting, colonies appear as whitish patches with uneven growing margin. Zooecia quincuncial, chitinous, outline distinct. Shape of zooecia variable, but generally longer than wide, very much elongated in certain cases. Gymnocyst present. Tuberculated cryptocyst developed all around with tubercles projecting into the opesia. The tubercles more or less of the same length. In addition, small tubercles present in the proximal region of the cryptocyst. Opesia elongate oval. In certain cases, the proximal region of the opesia broader than the distal region. Membraniporine operculum occupies three-fourth of the distal region. A pair of rounded prominences present on the proximal corners of certain zooecia. Proximal triangular depressions not evident.

Hermaphroditic. Reproduction may be sexual and asexual; bryozoan colonies consist of replicated series of zooids, each budded asexually from a predecessor. The founding zooid metamorphoses from the sexually produced larva.

It is also subject to competition and overgrowth from sponges, algae, and tunicates.

Synonym (s)
Millepora reticulum Linnaeus, 1767
Membranipora lacroixii Busk, 1854
Membranipora lacroixii Hincks, 1880
Membranipora lacroixii Robertson, 1907
Membranipora hippopus Annandale, 1915
Conopeum lacroixii Canu and Bassler, 1920
Membranipore lacroixii Robertson, 1921
Conopeum lacroixii Kirkpatrick & Metzelaar, 1923
Conopeum reticulum Harmer, 1926
Conopeum reticulum Osburn, 1950
Conopeum reticulum Menon and Nair, 1967
Conopeum reticulum Menon and Nair, 1975

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Small microorganisms, including diatoms and other unicellualr algae
Predator:  Grazing organisms such as sea urchins and fish


• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 1915)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1915)
• Arabian Sea INDIA (Record: 1915)
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 20/02/1964, 24/02/1964)

Literature Source(s)
  • Menon, NR and Menon, NN (2006) Taxonomy of Bryozoa from the Indian EEZ. A monograph Ocean Science and Technology Cell on Marine Benthos, Kochi and Centre for Marine Living resources and Ecology, Kochi 263 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • MarLIN: Marine life information network Biology and sensitivity key information sub-programme [on-line] Available at -
  • Menon, NR and Nair, NB (1975) Indian species of malacostega (polyzoa, ectoproacta) Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 17(3) 553-579 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-06-16

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