Johnius dussumieri [Status Unaccepted]   (Valenciennes,  1833) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 20-40 cm.

Color: Gray along back, silvery below, shot with golden-orange on belly, diffused blotch opercles and a dark spot at base of pectorals. First dorsal nearly black, fine dark spots on upper half of second dorsal, caudal and half of pectoral grayish.

Dorsal profile slightly convex from snout to caudal peduncle, ventral profile more convex. Snout bluntly rounded and swollen, three pores across its base and five along free border, a median pore below mandibular symphysis and two lateral ones on each side separated by thick folds of skin, often two others behind them, usually all fissure-like. Anterior nostril rounded, valvate, the posterior nostril much larger, close to middle border of eye, anteriorly with a flap. Opercle with two flat weak spines. Scales cycloid on cheek, preopercle and opercle, otherwise ciliate. Lateral line slightly arched to middle of soft dorsal, tubes distally bifid. Dorsal fin deeply incised, anal below middle of soft dorsal, dorsal and anal rounded, pectorals pointed, caudal rounded or wedge-shaped. Sagitta: anterior end broader, head of tadpole shaped impression lying parallel to the long axis, tail deepened into a hollow cone. Swim bladder hammer shaped with 14 pairs of arborescent appendages, the Ist pair entering the head. Height 3.25 in specimens of 200 mm, head 3.3, its profile ascending in a slightly convex line. Eye 4.2 far above horizontal through commencement of cleft of mouth, distance from upper jaw equal to 3/4 of its diameter, which equals flatly convex inter orbital space and goes 1.4 in bluntly rounded, swollen, prominent snout, the free border of which is mesially quadrilobate, the outer lobes the largest. Anterior nostril rounded, valvulate, the much larger posterior close to middle border of eye, anteriorly with a flap. Mouth nearly horizontal, interior, lips thick, velvety, upper jaw much longer, reaching hind border of pupil, maxillary concealed, its distal expansion truncate, equal to half eye diameter, mandibula included, below symphysis a median pore and two lateral on each side separated by thick folds of velvety skin, often two others behind them, usually all fissure-like. Preopercle distantly crenulated, strongest on rounded angle, opercle with two flat weak spines. Post temporal fimbriate. In Inter maxillaries an outer series of distant small conical teeth, anteriorly enlarged, and an inner villi form band, in mandibularies an anteriorly broad villi form band, narrowing posteriorly. Scales cycloid on cheeks, preopercle and opercle, otherwise ciliated, lateral line slightly arched to below middle of soft dorsal, the tubes distally bifid. Dorsal deeply incised, base of spinous part about half of base of soft part, third and fourth spine highest, about 2 1/2 times in length of head, somewhat higher than dorsal rays. Origin of anal below middle of soft dorsal, its rather weak second spine shorter than eye, about half length of first ray. Dorsal and anal rounded. Pectorals pointed, somewhat shorter than head without snout, ventrals about equal postocular part of head, the first ray filamentous, prolonged. Caudal rounded, somewhat cuneate, least height of its peduncle longer than eye.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders of eggs, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Frequently caught during dry months. Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Corvina dorsalis (non Peters, 1855)
(Misapplied name)
Corvina dussumieri Cuvier, 1830
(Senior synonym)
Corvina sina Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Johnieops dussumieri (Cuvier, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Johnieops sina (Cuvier, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Johnius sina (Cuvier, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Pseudosciaena sina (Cuvier, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena dussumieri (Cuvier, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Sciaena ossea Day, 1876
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena sina (Cuvier, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Umbrina macroptera (non Bleeker, 1853)
(Misapplied name)
Wak menoni Talwar & Joglekar, 1970
(Junior synonym)
Wak osseus (Day, 1876)
(Junior synonym)
Wak sina (Cuvier, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Corvina dussumieri Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Corvina dussumieri Bleeker, 1874
Sciaena glaucus Day, 1878
Sciaena glaucus Day, 1889
Johnius dussumieri Fowler, 1933
Sciaena dussumieri Hardenberg, 1934
Johnius dussumieri Weber and Beaufort, 1936
Johnius dussumieri Cantor, 1850
Sciaena glauca Day, 1889
Sciaena dussumieri Duncker, 1904
Sciaena glaucus Pellegrin, 1905
Sciaena glauca Hardenberg, 1931
Johnius glaucus Fowler, 1932
Sciaena dussumierii (Cuvier, 1830)

Common Name (s)
• Croaker (English)
• Sharptooth Hammer Croaker (English)
• Sin Croaker (English)
• Dhoma (Gujarati)
• Cherukora (Malayalam)
• Dhoma (Marathi)
• Dhomi (Marathi)
• Jewfish (English)
• Dussumier's Croaker (English)
• Dudra (Oriya)
• Gorasalu (Telugu)
• Olde (Kannada)
• Bearded Croaker (English)
• Dudra
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries. Marketed fresh, dried salted.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans, small fishes, worms
Predator:  Carcharhinus limbatus


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Persian Gulf
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Kakinada INDIA (Record: 1990-1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary, Mankule INDIA (Record: 1989-1990)
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Off South West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1968) (Depth: 10-75 mts)
• Orissa, Chandipur INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2012-01-18

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