Epinephelus tukula   Morgans,  1959 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultante of Oman

Size: 200 cm.

Color: The ground color of the body ranges from dark grey to light brown overall and is patterned with a number of large, oval dark-brown to black blotches. Small, round, black spots on soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins with a few large spots at the bases of these fins; pectoral and pelvic fins with small, obscure dark spots. Very large fish are uniformly dark grey or black.

The body is elongate and very robust. Body depth contained 2.9 to 3.3 times in standard length. Caudal peduncle depth greater than length of second anal fin spine; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye; 3 to 6 rows of teeth at sides of lower jaw; lower gillrakers 16 to 18; rear nostril diameter not more than twice that of front nostril. Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 15 soft rays; anal fin with 3 spines and 8 or 9 soft rays; pectoral rays 19 or 20; caudal fin rounded. pored lateral line scales 66 to 70; lateral scale series 117 to 135; midlateral body scales ctenoid.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Synonym (s)
Serranus dispar Playfair, 1867

Common Name (s)
• Potato Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(It is threatened by loss of habitat and overfishing.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Reef fishes, crustaceans, squids
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Kerala, Melekkel INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 20-28 mts)
• West Coast INDIA
• Gulf of Oman
• Goa, Grand Island INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 2-12 mts)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-11 mts)
• Kerala, Poovar INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 10-16 mts)
• Kerala, Enayam INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 10-14 mts)
• Kerala, Muttom INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 8-16 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Sluka, RD and Lazarus, S (2010) Grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) relative abundance and diversity on the west coast of India Marine Biodiversity Records Cambridge University Press 3 1-3 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267210000606

Page last updated on:2011-01-31

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