Otolithoides biauritus   (Cantor,  1849) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: FishBase

Size: 160-200 cm; height 4.6 to 5.6 in length;

Color: Brownish above, golden below, fins dark at tips; Head and back grey and flanks silvery.

Very elongate, slender, cylindrical, dorsal and ventral outline nearly horizontal, head thrice to nearly four, bluntly pointed, dorsally depressed. Eye oval, its horizontal diameter 6-7 in head, about twice in flatly convex inter orbital space, and 1.5 in convex snout, situated in anterior half of head, its lower margin in horizontal through commencement of gape of mouth, its upper margin near dorsal profile of head. Free border of snout not over-hanging jaw, not lobate, with five pores. Mouth terminal, oblique, gape wide, upper jaw not much less than half length of head, reaching behind eye, overlapping lower jaw, which is slightly shorter and included, with some symphysial pores, maxillary totally concealed, its expansion strongly rounded, equal horizontal diameter of eye. Preopercle above rounded angle indistinctly crenulated, opercle with two flat spines, post temporal large, densely fimbriate. Scales small, ciliate only on flanks, largest on head, particularly on its dorsal part, where they are also cycloid, lateral line straight, the sensory scales enlarged, oval, covered by small scales. Teeth in inter maxillaries in a rather broad inner villiform band and an outer row of enlarged, conical, distant teeth, the 2 anterior canine-like, in mandibula in an outer continous series of small sharp cardiform teeth, inside of them a row of far distant, curved canines, partly of small size. Spinous dorsal not deeply incised, its base about thrice short than shorter than soft dorsal, spines slender, second and third longest, about twice in height of body and about as high as rays, which are equally long. Anal rounded, second spine weak, less than half length of first ray. Pectorals obtusely pointed, as long as post orbital part of head, ventrals equal half length of head. Caudal rhomboid, least height of its peduncle equal one and a half times longest diameter of eye. Dorsal and ventral profile slightly arched. Inter-orbital space broadly convex. No pores on snout, a pair of pores and a pair of short slits in chin. Opercle with two obtuse points. Upper outer row of well spaced canines, with an inner row of small canines. Spinous and soft dorsal separate. Pectorals as long as head behind middle of eye. Ventrals reach one-third distance to vent. Caudal pointed. Scales oval, cycloid on head and ctenoid on body. Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27 - 32; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 6 - 7.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Otolithes brunneus (Day, 1873)
(Junior synonym)
Otolithoides brunneus (Day, 1873)
(Junior synonym)
Otolithus biauritus Cantor, 1849
(Senior synonym)
Otolithus brunneus Day, 1873
(Junior synonym)
Sciaenoides biauritus (Cantor, 1849)
(Senior synonym)
Sciaenoides brunneus (Day, 1873)
(Junior synonym)
Otolithus brunneus Fowler, 1933
Otolithoides brunneus Hardenberg, 1934
Otolithus biauritus Cantor, 1850
Sciaenoides biauritus Day, 1876
Otolithus biauritus Bleeker, 1858
Sciaenoides biauritus Blyth, 1861
Collichthys biauritus Gunther, 1860
Collichthys biaurita Bleeker, 1872
Sciaenoides biauritus Bleeker, 1877
Collichthys biaurita Duncker, 1904
Sciaenoides biauritus Hardenberg, 1931
Otolithoides biauritus Fowler, 1933
Otolithoides biauritus Hardenberg, 1934

Common Name (s)
• Croaker (English)
• Bronze Croaker (English)
• Dori (English)
• Koth (Gujarati)
• Kothisavallu (Marathi)
• Jew Fish (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries. An important foodfish. Sold fresh and dried salted (swim bladder) in markets.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes and invertebrates


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Maharashtra, Panchoo Bandar INDIA
• Maharashtra, Bassein INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Off Kandla INDIA (Record: 1986-1987)
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gajbhiye, SN; Mehta, P; Mustafa, S and Nair, VR (1995) A case study on the impact of industrial effluents disposal on the fisheries of Amba river estuary, Maharastra Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 25 25-38 Available at - http://hdl.handle.net/2264/2319
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/Mahasagar/Mahasagar_V-18/Mahasagar_18%284%29_489.pdf
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Nair, VR; Govindan, K; Ramaiah, N and Gajbhiye, SN (1993) Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 23 91-103 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/2779/2/J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_23_91.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Sciaenid Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-18

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