Aquila clanga   Pallas,  1811 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyright:Bird and birding in India

Size: 64-72 cm.

Voice: Wild clanging jeb-jeb-jeb.

Habits: Usually perched singly high on treetop, stump and canal banks. Hunts on the ground, generally slow moving prey.

Sexes alike, female larger. Adult: A dark eagle with purplish wash on back, paler below, shorter and more rounded tail, black tipped slaty-blue bill, yellow cere, large round nostrils, dull yellow legs and feet. Juvenile: With white trailing edge to the wings and tail, white spots on the coverts and scapulars form white spots on the coverts and scapulars form white bars on the wings in flight.

Breeding: season, mainly April to June, but may begin a month or two earlier. Nest, the usual massive circular platform of sticks and twigs, the central depression lined with a few leaves. Eggs, 1 or 2, broad ovals, white, sometimes faintly freckled with reddish or blocked with grey or reddish grey.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Greater Spotted Eagle (English)
• Kaljanga (Hindi)
• Nalla gadda (Telugu)
• Tapkivalo jummas (Gujarati)
• Moto kalo jummas (Gujarati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(Highly migratory nature of the species, factors that eliminate the possibility of conserving viable breeding populations within protected areas, and that reduce the efficacy of the protected area approach in general.)

Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fish, frogs, lizards and waterbirds.
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Goa, Divar INDIA (Record: 29/10/1987)
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz creek INDIA
• Goa, Baga INDIA
• Maharashtra, Satara district INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at -
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at -
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at -
  • Pawar SM, Ganeshwade RM and Sonawane SR (2010) Avian fauna along three water reservoir from Satara district (Maharashtra), India The Bioscan 5(4) 609-612pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-08-14

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