Epinephelus epistictus   (Temminck & Schlegel,  1842) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman

Size: 80 cm.

Max. weight reported: 7,000 g.

Color: The head and body is pale brownish to greenish grey with conspicuous small brownish black spots on the dorsal lateral part of the body, the rear part of the head, and on median fins. In juveniles, three slightly curved dark brown lines run backwards from the eye across the opercle and continue on to the body as a series of small dark spots. Pectoral fins are pale yellow and the margins of the spinous dorsal fin are golden.

This grouper has a robust moderately elongate body. Body depth contained 2.9 to 3.5 times in standard length. Eye diameter 4.5 to 5.8 times in head length; preopercle serrate, with 4 or 5 enlarged serrae at the angle; maxilla reaches to or almost to vertical at rear edge of orbit. The fins have prominent spines and include a single dorsal fin of 11 spines and 14-17 soft rays, an anal fin of 3 spines and 8 soft rays, a slightly to moderately rounded caudal fin and pectoral fin with 17 to 19 rays. Dorsal fin membrane distinctly indented between the spines. There are 7-10 gill rakers on the upper limb and 15-19 on the lower limb of the first gill arch, respectively. Lateral scale series 108 to 116; pored lateral line scales 57 to 72.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Synonym (s)
Epinephelus heniochus (non Fowler, 1904)
(Misapplied name)
Epinephelus magniscuttis (non Postel, Fourmanoir & Gueze, 1963)
(Misapplied name)
Epinephelus praeopercularis (Boulenger, 1888)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus stigmogrammacus Cheng & Yang, 1983
(Junior synonym)
Serranus praeopercularis Boulenger, 1888
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus episticus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842)
Serranus epistictus Temminck & Schlegel, 1842

Common Name (s)
• Dotted Grouper (English)
• Brokenline Grouper (English)
• Blackspotted Grouper (English)
• Black-Dotted Rock-Cod (English)
• Black-Spotted Rockcod (English)
• Brown Rockcod (English)
• Spottedback Grouper (English)
• Broken-Line Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; sold fresh and dried salted in local markets.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Open Sea, Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, benthic crustaceans


• West Coast INDIA
• Red Sea
• Gulf of Aden
• Gulf of Oman
• Persian Gulf
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 12/2006-03/2009)

Literature Source(s)
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sujatha, K (2004) Groupers off Visakhapatnam, northeast coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 46(1) 87-92 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Sujatha, K; Rao, KVLS and Padmavathi, P (2010) Length-weight relationship of four species of Epinephelus Bloch, 1793 in the catches off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin 52(1) 96-98 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-01-10

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