Caranx carangus [Status Unaccepted]   (Bloch,  1793) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: lescher, D

Size (male): 124 cm TL

Max. published weight: 32.0 kg

Color: Golden and shining on back and sides, about five cross bands in young, first dorsal gray, upper edge of second dorsal and upper lobe of caudal dark.

Scutes 25 to 42; no scales on chest, except a small mid-ventral patch in front of pelvic fins; upper profile of head steep; maxilla ending approximately below posterior edge of eye; front of soft dorsal and anal fins elevated; olivaceous to bluish green dorsally, silvery to brassy on the sides; prominent black spot posteriorly on gill cover at level of eye, another at upper axil of pectoral fins, and often a third on lower pectoral rays; caudal yellowish. Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 19 - 21; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 15 - 17.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders of eggs, open water/substratum egg scatterers.Sexual maturity is attained when the fish are over 15 cm in length.

Synonym (s)
Scomber carangus Bloch, 1793
Caranx carangus Bloch, 1783
Carangus esculentus Girard, 1859
(Junior synonym)
Carangus hippos (Linnaeus, 1766)
(Senior synonym)
Caranx antilliarum Bennett, 1840
(Junior synonym)
Caranx caninus (non Gunther, 1867)
(Misapplied name)
Caranx carangua Lacepede, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Caranx carangus (Bloch, 1793)
(Junior synonym)
Caranx crysos (non Mitchill, 1815)
(Misapplied name)
Caranx defensor DeKay, 1842
(Junior synonym)
Caranx erythrurus Lacepede 1801
(Junior synonym)
Caranx esculentus (Girard, 1859)
(Junior synonym)
Caranx hippos (Linnaeus, 1766)
(Senior synonym)
Caranx hippos caninus Gunther, 1867
(Junior synonym)
Caranx hippos hippos (Linnaeus, 1766)
(Senior synonym)
Caranx hippos tropicus Nichols, 1920
(Junior synonym)
Scomber carangus Bloch, 1793
(Junior synonym)
Scomber hippos Linnaeus, 1766
(Senior synonym)
Trachurus cordyla Gronow, 1854
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Black-tailed Trevelly (English)
• King Fsh (English)
• Gondlu (Kannada)
• Gondlu (Kannada)
• Para (Malayalam)
• Karivalam-para (Malayalam)
• Kadugapparai (Malayalam)
• Shitap (Marathi)
• Konti (Oriya)
• Para (Tamil)
• Pulli Parai (Tamil)
• Kilisai (Tamil)
• Thenga parai (Tamil)
• Komaraparai (Tamil)
• Vennai parai (Tamil)
• Semaparai (Tamil)
• Parai (Tamil)
• Manjal parai (Telugu)
• Pulli Parai (Telugu)
• Para (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, gamefish, aquarium
Reports of ciguatera poisoning)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Stomatopod larvae, other crustaceans and polychaete worms
Predator:  Bony fishes (Tetrapturus audax, Cynoscion regalis) and sea birds (Anous stolidus, Sterna fuscata)


• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Coast INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.75) (Long: 78.20) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Sreenivasan, PV (1974) On two new records of carangid fishes from Indian seas Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 21 (1) 20-28 Available at -
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Devaraj, M and Vivekanandan, E (1999) Marine capture fisheries of India: Challenges and Opportunities Current Science Current Science Association 76(3) 314-333 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-03-13

Back to Search