Halodule pinifolia   (Miki) den Hartog,  1964 (Seagrass)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Equisetopsida

Image copyrights: Annamalai University

Submerged herbs. Dioecious plants. Rhizomes creeping, branched, often moniliferous, flexible, white to pale brown. Roots 1-7 at each node, slender, unbranched, white to pale brown. Internodes upto 5 cm long. Shoots upto 40 cm long, erect, branched or unbranched, bearing 2-3 leaves at each branch. Stems upto 2 cm long, with short internodes. Leaf sheaths linear, convolute, entire along margins, transparent, with numerous reddish brown tannin streaks, persisting longer than leaf-blades. Leaf tips obtuse, retuse or subtruncate, with irregular few to many serrations.
Male flowers 2, subequal, dorsally connate at the apex of stalks. Stalks upto 2 cm long, terete, slender, white. Anthers oblongoid; upper anther 3-4.5 mm long; lower anther 2-3 mm long, with numerous reddish brown vertical tannin dashes, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers sessile, enclosed by leaf sheaths. Ovaries ovoid. Styles terete, filiform, terminal, pushed subterminal or lateral in fruits. Fruits globose to subglobose or ovoid, mostly in pairs, rarely with an aborted ovary with persistent, lateral styles. Testa hard, stony, smooth with ornamentations. Flowering and fruiting is from February to July.

This species has 2 forms, the short-leaved form found along the marginal and subtidal zones and the long-leaved form dominating the deeper zones.

Synonym (s)
Diplanthera pinifolia Miki, 1932
(Homotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Kadal Karumbu (Tamil)
• Kadal Korai (Tamil)
• Kadal Paasi (Tamil)
• Korai (Tamil)
• Korai Paasi (Tamil)
• Nedung Korai (Tamil)
• Neettu Korai (Tamil)
• Ghaddu Naasu (Telugu)
• Ghar Naasu (Telugu)
• Thungha (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Ecosystem balance
(Halophila pinifolia provides an ideal site for fish and prawns for breeding. Its dense underground system plays a vital role in sediment accumulation.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer


• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• East Coast, Coromandel INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manoliputti INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary (Lat: 11.43) (Long: 79.76) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 02/10/1916)
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA (Record: 11/05/1949, 18/02/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA (Record: 13/02/1987) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA (Record: 21/02/1987, 28/04/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore INDIA (Record: 18/03/1987) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Pondicherry, Thavalakuppam, Chunnambar INDIA (Record: 21/03/1987) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 23/03/1987) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Chidambaram, Pazhaiyar INDIA (Record: 27/03/1987) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat INDIA (Record: 18/05/1987) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur INDIA (Record: 17/07/1987) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur, Punnakayal INDIA (Record: 17/07/1987) (Depth: ±0.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Kayalpatnam INDIA (Record: 18/07/1987) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Nellai Kattabomman, Nadar Uvari INDIA (Record: 20/07/1987) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 22/07/1987) (Depth: ±1 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai INDIA (Record: 23/07/1987) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Thanjavur, Mallipattinam INDIA (Record: 16/09/1987) (Depth: ±1 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Manora INDIA (Record: 17/09/1987) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Pudukottai, Kattumavadi INDIA (Record: 20/09/1987) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Pudukottai, Manamelkudi INDIA (Record: 21/09/1987) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA (Record: 26/09/1987) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Thonithurai INDIA (Record: 20/04/1988) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram, Akkalmadam INDIA (Record: 22/04/1988) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram, Ramatheertham INDIA (Record: 24/04/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Harbour INDIA (Record: 30/04/1988) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Chengalpattu, Palar Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/09/1988) (Depth: ±2.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Chinnaganjam INDIA (Record: 25/06/1988) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Salt Pettah INDIA (Record: 27/06/1988) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Ramayeepatnam INDIA (Record: 02/07/1988, 16/09/1988) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Karedu INDIA (Record: 03/07/1988) (Depth: ±2.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nellore, Isakapalle INDIA (Record: 05/07/1988) (Depth: ±2.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nellore, Utukuru INDIA (Record: 06/07/1988) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nellore, Krishnapatnam INDIA (Record: 08/07/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nellore, Krishnapatnam INDIA (Record: 16/09/1988) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Theetapuram INDIA (Record: 01/07/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Gunnamola INDIA (Record: 28/06/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Nuvvalarevu Mangrove INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manoli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Hare Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 01/1987-09/1988)
• Palk Bay INDIA (Record: 01/1987-09/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 01/1987-09/1988)

Literature Source(s)
  • Kannan L and Thangaradjou (1998) Seaweeds and seagrasses of Porto Novo Annamalai University, Parangipettai 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Balasubramanian, R; Kannan, L and Thangaradjou, T (2000) Screening of seagrasses for antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu 22 (1 & 2) 101-106 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ramamurthy, K; Balakrishnan, NP; Ravikumar, K and Ganesan, R (1992) Seagrasses of Coromandel Coast India Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore 80 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG; Komarpant, DS and Rodrigues, R (2003) The seagrasses of India World atlas of seagrasses University of California Press, Berkeley, USA 101-108 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Venkataraman, K and Wafar, M (2005) Coastal and marine biodiversity of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 34(1) 57-75 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Swain, PK; Rao, NR and Mohan, S (2008) New mangrove habitats and additions to the flora of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India Indian Journal of Forestry Commonwealth Forestry Association 31 431-434 Available at - http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/Indian%20Journal%20of%20Forestry%201.pdf
  • Thangaradjou, T and Kannan, L (2005) Marine sediment texture and distribution of seagrasses in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Seaweed Res Utilis NISCAIR 27(1&2) 145 - 154 Available at - http://www.casmbenvis.nic.in/sdnp/coral%20reef%20pdf/C11.pdf
  • Tanaji,G; Jagtap, Deepali,S; Komarpant, and Rodrigues, RS (2003) Status of a seagrass ecosystem:an ecologically sensitive wetland habitat from India Wetlands 23(1) 161–170 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/awjp1469442q5g75/fulltext.pdf
  • Thangaradjou, T; Nobi, EP; Dilipan, E; Sivakumar, K and Sushila, S (2010) Heavy metal enrichment in seagrasses of Andaman Islands and its implications on the health of the coastal ecosystem Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR 39(1) 85-91 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/8550/1/IJMS%2039%281%29%2085-91.pdf
  • Parthasathy, N; Ravikumar, K; Ganesan, R and Ramamurthy, K (1991) Distribution of seagrasses along the coast of Tamil Nadu, Southern India Aquatic botany Elsevier 40(1) 145-153 Available at - NIO, Goa.

Page last updated on:2011-09-29

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