Cynoglossus macrostomus   Norman,  1928 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: J.E. Randall

Size: Maximum 17.3 cm TL; common to 15 cm

Color: light brown on eyed side with dark brown mottling forming diffuse, irregular crossbands; dorsal and anal fins grey/black.

Body flat and elongate, with dorsal and anal fins joined to caudal fin. Eyes on left side of body, with no space between them; snout short and obtusely pointed, rostral hook short. Cleft of mouth extending far back to posterior margin of fixed eye. Two lateral lines on eyed side but none on blind side. Scales ctenoid (rough to touch) on both sides of body, moderately sized, 14 to 16 scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side.

Synonym (s)
Cynoglossus hamilton (not Gunther) Day, 1877
Cynoglossus luctosus Chabanaud, 1947
Cynoglosbus luctosus Chabanaud, 1947
Cynoglossus semifasciatus (not Day) Seshappa and Bhimachar, 1955
Cynoglossus cynoglossus (not Hamilton-Buchanan) Saramma, 1963
Cynoglossus hamiltonii (non Gunther), 1862
(Misapplied name)
Cynoglossus luctuosus Chabanaud, 1948
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus hamiltoni (nec. Gunther), 1877

Common Name (s)
• Malabar sole (English)
• Malabar Tonguesole (English)
• Lepti (Marathi)
• Shivra (Marathi)
• Nangu (Kannada)
• Manthal (Malayalam)
• Aral (Tamil)
• Jerree Potoo (Telugu)
• Kukurji (Bengali)
• Gipti (Gujarati)
• Jeeb (Gujarati)
• Lep (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen; also dried salted)

Habitat:  Pelagic, Bentho Pelagic, Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic invertebrates, especially worms
Predator:  Johnius dussumieri


• West Coast, Malabar INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mirkarwada INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ansari, ZA; Sreepada, RA; Dalal, SG; Ingole, BS and Chatterji, A (2003) Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Elsevier 56(3-4) 503-515 Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A (1996) Nematode parasites associated with the flatfishes (order: pleuronectiformes) of the Kerala coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 38(1&2) 34-39 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-11

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