Crassostrea madrasensis   (Preston)  (Oyster)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order:Ostreoida
Family:Ostreidae

Image copyrights: FAO

Description
The shell is moderately thick and externally scaly and with the inner surface of the valves porcellanous and whitish. The adductor muscle scar is of a deep purple color; the hinge is narrow and elevated. Shell straight, shape irregular, covered by numerous foliaceous laminae, left valve deep, right one slightly concave, hinge narrow and elongated, adductor scar sub-central, reniform and dark purple in colour, inner surface of valves white, glosssy and smooth, purplish black colouration on the inner margin of the valves.
The right and the left mantle lobes of the oyster enclose a large mantle cavity which is divisible into a lower inhalent chamber and an upper exhalent chamber. In the inhalent chamber are two pairs of gills one each on the right and left sides extending forwards upto the two labial palps between which the mouth is present. In about the middle of the body is the adductor which runs across the two valves of the shell. It consists of a large anterior translucent portion formed of striated muscle fibres, which brings about rapid contraction that can close the shell quickly and a narrow posterior portion composed of smooth muscle fibres, which functions as a catch muscle to fix the valves in a particular position either partially or fully open. In front of the posterior adductor is the pericardium enclosing the heart with two auricles and a ventricle. The digestive system consists of a narrow oesophagus leading from the mouth, a spacious stomach closely pressed against the ramifications of the digestive gland of either side, a slightly twisted midgut with a style sac in the oral process, a long intestine partly within the oral process and partly encircling the stomach and a rectum opening into the exhalent chamber by the anus located on the dorsal side of the adductor muscle. Much branched vesicles with connective passages at the junction of the mantle with the body constitute the kidneys. The gonads of the oyster are creamy white, highly branched, tubular follicles lying below the body epithelium around the visceral organs.The follicles of the two sides almost fuse at the hinge region and are absent below the oesophagus and around the pericardium. The gonoducts of the two sides open into two separate urino-genital clefts near the adductor muscle. In fully ripe females the ramifications of the follicle tubules are clearly discernible and this is not the case in ripe males. In partly spawned oysters of both sexes the upper portion of the gonad is flabby and there is accumulation of watery fluid, while lower below there are ripe germ cells within the follicles. The amount of watery fluid in the gonads depends on the extent of spawning. Generally the fully spent female oyster presents a more flabby appearance than a fully spawned male.

The oyster is normally unisexual, but change of sex has been observed with a fair number of individuals in a transitional hermaphroditic phase.

The species has a wide range of tolerance to variations in salinity of waters in the environment.


Synonym (s)
Ostrea cucullata Hornell, 1910
Ostrea virginica Annandale & Kemp, 1916
Ostrea virginiana Hornell, 1922b
Ostrea virginiana var. madrasensis Moses, 1928
Ostrea arakanensis Winckworth, 1931
Ostrea madrasensis Preston, 1916
Ostrea madrasensis Awati and Rai, 1931
Ostrea madrasensis Gravely, 1941
Ostrea madrasensis Paul, 1942
Ostrea madrasensis Rao, 1951
Ostrea ( Crassostrea) madrasensis Rao, 1956
Ostrea madrasensis Satyamurthi, 1956
Crassostrea madrasensis Rao, 1958

Common Name (s)
• Estuarine Oyster (English)
• Ali (Tamil)
• Kalungu (Tamil)
• Patti (Tamil)
• Muringa (Malayalam)
• Muru (Malayalam)
• East Coast Edible Oyster
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries
Possess high antiviral activity)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Demersal, Estuarine, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Diatoms (Biddulphia, Rhizosolenia, Chaetocersa and Coscinodiscus) and detritus

Biogeography


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Ennur Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi INDIA (Record: 06/2005-05/2006)
• Karnataka, Netrani Island (Lat: 14.01) (Long: 74.32) INDIA (Record: 08/05/2006) (Depth: -12 mts)
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• Kerala, Vypin Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.42) (Long: 79.79) INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Kerala, Vembanad Kol INDIA
• Kerala, Tellicherry INDIA
• Kerala, Beypore INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Harbour INDIA
• Kerala, Azhikode INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Covelong INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Harbour INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Ennur INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Delta INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Krishna Delta INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 79.8) (Long: 11.88) INDIA (Record: 01/2009)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 79.81) (Long: 11.76) INDIA (Record: 01/2009)
• Tamil Nadu, Arukkattuthurai (Lat: 10.39) (Long: 79.86) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Kodikkarai (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Mallipattinam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.32) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Manalmelkudi (Lat: 10.42) (Long: 79.31) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Adirampattinam (Lat: 9.95) (Long: 79.18) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi INDIA (Record: 07/2005-06/2006)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Athankarai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam, Kanchanagudi INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Karangadu Mangroves (Lat: 9.64) (Long: 78.94) INDIA (Record: 02/2010) (Depth: 1-2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Karangadu Mangroves (Lat: 9.64) (Long: 78.96) INDIA (Record: 02/2010) (Depth: 1-2 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Gokulapalle INDIA
• Orissa, Sonepur INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kalpakkam INDIA (Record: 1987-1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Edaiyur Backwaters (Lat: 12.56) (Long: 80.18) INDIA (Record: 04/1988-03/1989)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• INDIA

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Page last updated on:2011-12-19

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