Calidris canutus   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

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Size: 23-25 cm.

Voice: Usually silent.

Habits: Gregarious, feeds by probing in to soft mud.

Sexes alike, like Great Knot but slightly smaller with round body, straight and relatively shorter black bill, and yellowish-green legs. Non-breeding (winter): Upperparts ashy-grey with thin whitish fringes and narrow blackish shaft-streaks, underparts whitish with faint streaks on breast and upper belly. Breeding (summer): Strongly mottled chestnut, black above, bright rufous below.

Breeding season: The species breeds from June to August in solitary pairs. Nest- The nest is an open shallow depression either positioned on hummocks surrounded by mud and water or on stony or gravelly ground on open vegetated tundra or stone ridges.

Synonym (s)
Tringa canutus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name (s)
• Red Knot (English)
• Knot (English)
• Lesser Knot (English)
• Uthari kichidiyo (Gujrati)
• Maduvoo (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is vulnerable to extensive land reclamation projects that encroach upon staging areas and is threatened by the over-exploitation of shellfish which leads directly and indirectly to reductions in prey availability. The species also suffers from disturbance in the non-breeding season as a result of tourism, foot-traffic on beaches, recreational activities and over-flying aircraft, which together reduce the size of available foraging areas. It is also potentially threatened by industrial pollution and oil exploration This species hunted illegally. )
Threats:  Natural threats
(Susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus.)
Importance:  Commercial
(For the purpose of utilization this species is hunted illegally.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous tiny crustaceans, molluscs, etc. washed up on the seashore.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Arunachal Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at -
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Balachandran, S (2006) The decline in wader populations along the east coast of India with special reference to Point Calimere, south-east India. Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK. 296-301pp Available at -
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at -
  • Lal Mohan RS (1986) Birds and Bird Catchers Of Ramanathapuram Coast Available at -
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at -,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1969) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 2 1-337pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2013-02-06

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