Sufflamen fraenatus   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman

Length: 50 cm

Color: Yellowish-brown to dark-brown. A prominent pinkish-yellow stripe or ring encircles the lower jaw and a bright yellow stripe runs from the corner of the mouth to the pectoral fin base

Body is deep, laterally compressed and angular in shape. Large rectilinear scale plates, arranged in regular rows forming a distinct diamond pattern, cover the body. The scales on the head are small while those above the pectoral fin base and just below the gill slit are enlarged to form a flexible tympanum. On the posterior half of the body, the scales are with keels; those on the caudal peduncle form longitudinal ridges arranged in 12 or 13 series. A well defined groove in the skin occurs just in front of the eye and extends anteriorly from the front border of the eye about a half to one eye diameter. There are two separate dorsal fins. The first has 3 spines with the first two spines large and forming the typical trigger-mechanism, while the second dorsal fin has 27 to 31 rays. The anal fin comprises 25 to 28 rays and the caudal fin is slightly emarginate to truncate. The pelvic fins are reduced to a single short movable spine on the angle of the belly.
In females, The ovaries are short, cylindrical and sac like lying in the posterior part of the body cavity. Both the lobes are of equal size with a narrow oviduct ventrally. A small yellow globular tissue is found on the paired ovary wall, where the oviduct meets the ovary.
In males, the testis are observed in two stages; the immature testis is paired white colored globular structures. Mature testis is globular or kidney shaped with many small lobes.

Estimated average fecundity is 62,205.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Masked Triggerfish (English)
• Bridle Triggerfish (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky
Prey:  Coral polyps, benthic invertebrates


• Kerala INDIA
• South Coast INDIA
• Red Sea
• Gulf of Aden
• Off Oman
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 05/1999-04/2000)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Sahayak, S (2005) Reproductive biology of the masked triggerfish Sufflamen fraenatus Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological association of India, Cochin, India 47(1) 70-76 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean; (Fishing area 51). FAO, Rome 1 Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-05

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