Xenus cinereus   (Guldenstadt,  1775) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: pbase.com

Description
Size: 22-25 cm; Length: 22-25 cm.

Color: Above grey-brown, bend of wing blackish; below white with faint grey tinging and streaking to sides of neck and breast; white trailing edge to spread wing; tail grey with whitish sides; breeding bird darker brown broadly streaked on back and heavier streaking below. Immature browner than adult with darker streaking; rufous edges to upper wing and tail coverts. Bare parts: iris brown; long recurved bill black with dull red to yellow-orange at base; feet and short legs orange-yellow.

Voice: Soft tooit-twit-twit.

Habits: Gregarious, keeps in small flocks of 10-15 birds, generally feeds on seashore between the tidemarks.

Sexes alike, an unmistakable bird with long, slender and upcurved bill (yellow base and black or dark brown tip), orange-yellow short legs. Non-breeding (winter), Forehead and supercilia white, upperparts greyish-brown with blackish streaks, underparts pure white. Breeding (summer): Sides of head and neck, and breast streaked with brown, upperparts boldly streaked with black.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs between May and June. Nest-The nest is a shallow depression close to water either in the open, or sheltered by short grasses.

Synonym (s)
Tringa cinerea (Guldenstadt, 1775)
Tringa terek terek ((Turbott, 1990)

Common Name (s)
• Terek Sandpiper (English)
• Terek manaloothi (Malayalam)
• Chanchal (Gujrati)
• Uppukothi ullan, Kadakarai ullan (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous - small molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic insects.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Goa, Taleigao Plateau INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Sundarban INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at - http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/wlc12/A%20-%20Ecology%20&%20Biodiversity/A-21.pdf
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent ENVIS Newsletter: Avian Ecology and Inland Wetland 55pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(2).pdf
  • ENVIS center on avian ecology Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/State.html
  • Desai, M and Shanbag, AB (2012) An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(3) 2444–2453 Available at - www.threatenedtaxa.org
  • Avibase- the world database Available at - http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Pande S, Sant NR, Ranade SD, PednekarSN, Mestry PG, Kharat S S and Deshmukh V (2007) An ornithological expedition to the Lakshadweep archipelago: Assessment of threats to pelagic and other birds and recommendations Indian Birds 3(1) 2-12pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/An%20ornithological%20expedition.pdf
  • Deiva Oswin S (1999) Avifaunal diversity of Muthupet mangrove forest Zoo's print journal 14(6) 47-53 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/1999/June/47-53.pdf
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2007/October/2839-2847.pdf
  • Pande S, Sant N, Ranade S, Pednekar S, Mestry P, Deshpande P, Kharat S and Deshmukh V (2007) Avifaunal survey of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, January 2007 Indian Birds 3 (5) 162–180pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Avifaunal%20survey%20of%20Andaman%20and%20Nicobar%20Islands,%20January%202007.pdf
  • Zöckler C, Balachandran S, Bunting GC, Fanck M, Kashiwagi M, Lappo EG, Maheswaran G, Sharma A, Syroechkovski EE and Webb K (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders Wader Study Group Bull 108 42–46pp Available at - http://m-h-s.org/stiftung/upload/pdf-downloadbar/Ornith_Expedition_Indien.pdf

Page last updated on:2013-02-05

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