Tringa nebularia   (Gunnerus,  1767) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: 30-34 cm; Length 30-36 cm.

Color: Above mottled grey; below white with some streaking on sides of neck and chest; tail barred black; long white wedge between wings apparent in flight; head mottled grey with whitish face and dark line from base of bill to eye; in breeding bird upperparts brown with heavy streaking and barring, below with more streaking on breast and neck; head more heavily streaked. Immature buffier below. Bare parts: iris brown; bill black with greenish or bluish grey base, slightly upcurved; feet and legs greenish to yellowish grey.

Voice: A loud ringing tu-tu-tu.

Habits: Forages in scattered parties with other sandpipers, occurs in flocks of 15-20 birds when migrating, runs around on mud often probing for food, wades in shallow water. Arrives by second half of August in India and departs by end of April or early May.

Sexes alike. Non-breeding (winter): Dark greyish-brown above and white below. White forehead, lower back, rump and tail, the last with faint, almost invisible barring. Greyish on foreneck and sides of head, bill greenish-brown, blacker at tip and slightly upcurved, legs and feet olive-green. Breeding (summer): Darker above, with broad black centres on back and scapulars. In flight distinguished from Marsh Sandpiper by larger size, and from Redshank by absence of white wing-bar. Olive-green legs and slightly up. curved bill.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Common Greenshank (English)
• Greenshank (English)
• Timtima (Hindi)
• Gotra (Bengali)
• Peria kottan (Tamil)
• Pachakkali (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(This species is threatened by the degradation and loss of its preferred wetland habitats through environmental pollution, reduced river flows and human disturbance.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous (tadpoles, molluscs, crustaceans, insects).
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa, Baga INDIA (Record: 18/01/1981)
• Goa, Arpora INDIA (Record: 18/01/1981)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• West Bengal, Bangaon, Ichhamati River INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Arunachal Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Nagaland INDIA
• Sundarban INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2013-02-05

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