Torpedo sinuspersici   Olfers  1831 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Elasmobranchii
Order:Torpediniformes
Family:Torpedinidae

Image copyrights: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman

Description
Size: 14-29 cm disc width

Color: Brownish and patterned with numerous blotches and reticulations. The underside is whitish.

The head, body and pectoral fins of this electric ray form a rounded, soft and flabby disc giving the ray a characteristic circular electric ray shape. The skin is smooth and devoid of scales. The tail is short and strong and carries two small dorsal fins. At the end of the tail there is a small but well developed triangular to rounded caudal fin. The pelvic fins which are fleshy and somewhat enlarged, are fused to the pectorals. Two small eyes just precede the spiracles which have several small tentacles around them. The ventrally located mouth is broadly arched and bears small sharply cusped teeth. There are also 5 pairs of gill openings on the underside of the disc.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures. With 9-22 in a litter. Form aggregations during the reproductive season.

The fish can discharge electric shocks of more than 100 volts from paired kidney-shaped electric organs in the pectoral fins. The ray uses this ability to stun the prey and as a means of self defense.


Synonym (s)
Torpedo marmorata (non Risso) 1810
(Misapplied name)
Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Marbled Electricray (English)
• Mottled Electricray (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Gamefish, flesh is edible.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Sluggish electric rays are susceptible to capture in trawl fisheries where they are a discarded bycatch. Post-capture survivorship is thought to be low. Habitat degradation may be affecting this species, where development pressure is high or where coral reef systems are being impacted upon through pollution, destructive fishing practices or other human activities.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Bony fishes
IUCN Status:  Data Deficient

Biogeography


• INDIA (Record: 1995)
• PAKISTAN (Record: 1995)
• Red Sea (Record: 1995)
• SOUTH AFRICA (Record: 1995)
• Gulf of Oman (Record: 1995)
• Persian Gulf (Record: 1995)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 00/10/1999-00/11/2000)

Literature Source(s)
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/

Page last updated on:2009-07-14

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