Charadrius mongolus   Pallas,  1776 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: Pbase

Size: 19-21 cm; Length 19-21 cm.

Color: Above grey-brown; no white on hind neck; below white; non-breeding adults with large grey-brown pectoral patches; white forehead and superciliary line; breeding adult with chestnut breast band and collar on hindneck tinged chestnut; face with dark mask--no white on forehead. Immature like non-breeding adult but with pale edges to dorsal feathers. Bare parts: iris dark brown; bill relatively heavy, black; feet and legs grey or dark grey tinged pink, green or yellow; do not extend beyond tail in flight.

Voice: Sharp and short chitik, chi-chi, and kruit-kruit.

Habits: Gregarious, keeps in scattered flocks, Which are sometimes very large, with other waders, when resting the bird stands inert on one leg, breeds from early June to mib-July in Ladakh.

Adult: Sexes alike, a typical little plover with short pigeon-like back bill and greenish-grey legs. Non-breeding (winter): Distinguished from similar Kentish Plover by broad white face divided by dark brownish patch behind eyes. Upperparts sandy greyish-brown and underparts white. Breeding (summer): Male: Forehead and sides of head black, crown and hind neck rusty, remaining upperparts sandy brown, upperparts and flanks chestnut, separated from glistening white throat by a blackish half-collar, rufous-orange breast and hind neck. Female: Similar to non-breeding adult but with pale orange breast-band. Juvenile: Feathers of upperparts with pale fringes.

Breeding season: late-February to April. Nest- The nest of this species is a shallow scrape in bare sand or shingle (nesting pairs may often utilise cattle footprints), sometimes beside bushes and big stones (or amongst lichens and Drias in the Far East).

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Lesser Sand Plover (English)
• Lesser Sand-Plover (English)
• Mongolian plover (English)
• Mongolian Dotterel (English)
• Nani ratal titodi, Nani dhongili (Gujrati)
• Mandi ullan (Tamil)
• Manal kozhi (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(This species is threatened by habitat degradation and loss (e.g. agricultural developments reducing the area of coastal and inland habitats, and hydrological changes to estuaries modifying important areas of suitable habitat in Australia ), as well as disturbance from tourism)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous, comprising crabs, insects and worms.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Goa, Morjim beach INDIA (Record: 02/11/1983)
• Goa, Chapora estuary INDIA
• Goa, Agarwaddo marshes INDIA
• Goa, Panaji saltpans INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Port INDIA
• Arunachal Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake (Lat: 13.67) (Long: 80.17) INDIA
• Sundarban INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at -
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at -
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at -
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at -,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Lal Mohan RS (1986) Birds and Bird Catchers Of Ramanathapuram Coast Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at -
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at -
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at -
  • Balachandran, S (2006) The decline in wader populations along the east coast of India with special reference to Point Calimere, south-east India. Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK. 296-301pp Available at -
  • Zöckler C, Balachandran S, Bunting GC, Fanck M, Kashiwagi M, Lappo EG, Maheswaran G, Sharma A, Syroechkovski EE and Webb K (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders Wader Study Group Bull 108 42–46pp Available at -
  • Pande S, Sant NR, Ranade SD, PednekarSN, Mestry PG, Kharat S S and Deshmukh V (2007) An ornithological expedition to the Lakshadweep archipelago: Assessment of threats to pelagic and other birds and recommendations Indian Birds 3(1) 2-12pp Available at -
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2013-01-29

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