Charadrius alexandrinus   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Charadriidae

Image copyrights: pbase

Description
Size: 15-17 cm; Length 15-17 cm. Range mass 34 to 58 g.

Color: Above grey-brown; below white; forehead and band on hindneck white continuous with white superciliary line; breastband incomplete--dark patches at sides of chest only; breeding male with black bars at sides of chest, black frontal bar and black line through eye; chestnut cap; in non-breeding male and female brown replaces black, no chestnut in cap. Immature like adult but paler with buff markings on coverts. Bare parts: iris dark brown; bill black; eyering black; feet and legs dark grey to black.

Voice: Soft prrr, short kirrik, shrill too-it.

Habits: Flocks mixed with other waders, keeps in pairs or small groups, which scatter over large areas for feeding, breeds from March to August in W (Sind & Gujarat) and S (Tamil Nadu), nests slight depression on seashore, saltpan and dry riverbeds.

Adult: Sexes alike, but female duller, similar to immature Little Ringed Plover. Non-breeding (winter): Distinguished by blackish legs, white forehead continued unbroken as supercilium, sandy grey crown, narrow and brownish eye stripe, and a small dark patch on either side of breast. Breeding (summer): Male has black and rufous crown and black eye streak, female more or less as in non-breeding plumage. Juvenile: Like female but with the upperparts narrowly scalloped with sandy buff.

Breeding season: from March to October. Nest- The nest is a shallow scrape positioned near water on bare earth or in sparse vegetation, often on slightly raised ground and partly sheltered by plants or near conspicuous objects such as grass clumps or shrubs.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Kentish Plover (English)
• Snowy Plover (English)
• Dhongili, Bhulamani dhongili (Gujrati)
• Kentish chikhli (Marathi)
• Chinna mandai ullan, Chinna kottan, Uppu kotthi (Tamil)
• Manal kozhi (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species is susceptible to avian botulism, so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is threatened by the disturbance of coastal habitats (e.g. tourists trampling nests and disturbing roosts on beaches). It is also threatened by the degradation and loss of wetland habitat through environmental pollution, land reclamation, declining river flows (from water abstraction), unsustainable harvesting of benthic fauna, urbanisation and a reduction in the amount of sediment being carried into coastal areas by rivers.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous (crabs, sand hoppers and other insects)
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa, Colva beach INDIA (Record: 19/12/1968)
• Goa, Miramar beach INDIA
• Goa, Morjim INDIA
• Goa, Velsao beach INDIA
• Goa, Chapora Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Cumbarjua INDIA
• Goa, Terekhol Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Port INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Connecticut Ornithological Association Available at - http://www.ctbirding.org/
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/n058/p00024-p00027.pdf
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at - http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/wlc12/A%20-%20Ecology%20&%20Biodiversity/A-21.pdf
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Mohan, RSL (1989) Some observations on the marine mammals and marine birds Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 195-199 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Myers, P; Espinosa, R; Parr, CS; Jones, T; Hammond, GS and Dewey, TA (2006) Animal diversity web Available at - http://animaldiversity.org.
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Gupta RC, Kaushik TK and Gupta PK (2012) WINTER MIGRATORY WETLAND BIRDS IN HARYANA ARE CONFRONTING ADVERSE CONDITIONS IN RURAL PONDS Resulting in reduction in arrival number: A case study of village Amin in Thanesar block in Kurukshetra district Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2 (1) 7pp Available at - http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2012/Vol%202%20No%201/1-002%20Gupta-Migratory.pdf
  • Lal Mohan RS (1986) Birds and Bird Catchers Of Ramanathapuram Coast Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5615/1/10.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2011/April/o187026iv111663-1676.pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/v099/p00031-p00034.pdf
  • Pandya PJ and Vachhrajani KD (2010) Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) 994-1000pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/June/o231626vi10994-1000.pdf
  • Deiva Oswin S (1999) Avifaunal diversity of Muthupet mangrove forest Zoo's print journal 14(6) 47-53 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/1999/June/47-53.pdf
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2007/October/2839-2847.pdf
  • Pande S, Sant N, Ranade S, Pednekar S, Mestry P, Deshpande P, Kharat S and Deshmukh V (2007) Avifaunal survey of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, January 2007 Indian Birds 3 (5) 162–180pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Avifaunal%20survey%20of%20Andaman%20and%20Nicobar%20Islands,%20January%202007.pdf
  • Zöckler C, Balachandran S, Bunting GC, Fanck M, Kashiwagi M, Lappo EG, Maheswaran G, Sharma A, Syroechkovski EE and Webb K (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders Wader Study Group Bull 108 42–46pp Available at - http://m-h-s.org/stiftung/upload/pdf-downloadbar/Ornith_Expedition_Indien.pdf
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/

Page last updated on:2013-01-29

Back to Search