Charadrius hiaticula   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: pbase

Size: 18-20 cm; Length 18-20 cm.

Color: Above dark greyish brown; below white; forehead and superciliary stripe white, collar around neck white; crown and cheeks brown; breast band, line through eye and over forehead black in breeding and dark brown in non-breeding adult. White at base of flight feathers in spread wing. Immature like adult but with pale edges to feathers of back; breast band paler and broken; brown on face paler than adult. Bare parts: iris brown; bill orange-yellow with a black tip; feet and legs bright orange-yellow (diagnostic).

Voice: Soft too-li or tooee.

Habits: Occurs in pairs or in small flocks mixed with other waders, when foraging scatters over wide area, typical plover feeding behaviour.

Adult: Sexes alike, bill, legs and feet orange-yellow, the former with black tip. Non-breeding (winter): Breast-band and ear-coverts brownish-black, forehead and supercilium whitish, legs and base of bill orangish. Breeding (summer): Upper forehead, lores to upper ear-coverts black. A broad line from eye to eye covering lower forehead white, remaining head and upperparts dark brown, except a buffish hind-collar. Tail brown with a broad subterminal white band and pure white tip, chin, throat and sides of neck white, meeting the buff hind-collar, a broad black band across the foreneck and upper breast, remaining underparts white.

Breeding season: The species starts to breed from April until June. Nest- The nest is a shallow scrape positioned near the high-water mark on shingle or sandy beaches.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Common Ringed Plover (English)
• Ringed Plover (English)
• great ringed plover (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Important migratory stop-over habitats for this species on the Baltic Sea coastline are threatened by petroleum pollution, wetland drainage for irrigation, land abandonment and changing land management practices leading to scrub overgrowth)
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species is also susceptible to avian botulism (so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease), and suffers predation from feral America mink Neovison vison in some regions)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous.
Predator:  feral America mink Neovison vison
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Goa, Morjim beach INDIA
• Goa, Baga saltpans INDIA
• Goa, Candolim INDIA
• Goa, Panaji INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 2003, 2008)
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Port INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Animal Photo Album Available at -
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at -
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at -
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at -
  • Deiva Oswin S (1999) Avifaunal diversity of Muthupet mangrove forest Zoo's print journal 14(6) 47-53 Available at -
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at -,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • PBase Available at -

Page last updated on:2013-01-29

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