Pluvialis apricaria   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights:

Size: 23-27 cm.

Voice: Disyllabic whistle too-lee.

Habits: Gregarious, generally in small flocks in association with other waders, very wary and difficult to approach.

Adult: Sexes alike, similar to Grey Plover. Non-breeding (winter): Upper parts black and gold-spangled, chin and throat white, breast mottled gold and brown, abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts white, the latter tipped and barred on lateral feathers with gold and brown. Breeding (summer): Upperparts bright gold-spangled, underparts black. In flight, the pure white underwing and axillaries distinguish it from Grey Plover, which has black axillaries, distinguish it from Grey Plover, which has black axillaries.

Breeding season: It breeds from May to August in solitary pairs. Nest- The nest is a shallow scrape on bare ground in flat, sparse areas with short vegetation (less than 15 cm).

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• European Golden Plover (English)
• Golden Plover (English)
• Chhota batan (Hindi)
• Sonchikli (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(The species is frequently taken by hunters on its wintering grounds)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species has suffered minor range contractions due to the cultivation and afforestation of heathlands)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Susceptible to very cold winter temperatures and severe weather conditions)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Chiefly carnivorous (insects, small molluscs crustaceans), occasionally aquatic plants.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at -
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at -
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at -
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at -,%20No.4,%202004.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-07-11

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